Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.
In developing countries, a general lack of experience exists in construction management implementation. This study introduces a methodology to evaluate human resource management processes in construction projects. The study used inputs, outputs, and tools and techniques recommended by the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, 2004). The opinions of experts in the field of construction projects were collected regarding the managerial parameters and tools of interest. The analytic hierarchy process was used to evaluate the ranking of each parameter. The performance of each process was determined based on the importance weighting and the proposed efﬁciency of each variable. The results of the implementation showed considerable progress in project planning, but team development and team management need much more attention. The study presents a methodology for human resource assessment in the construction industry and the ﬁndings are applicable to Kuwait and similar developing countries. Keyword: assessment; construction; human resources; project management 1. Introduction T h e c u r r e n t s t u d y p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f a n Human resource management is one of the core assessment process for human resource management in management areas in construction projects. Human the ﬁeld of construction projects in Kuwait. The study resources constitute 25% to 40% of the direct costs utilized the guidelines of the Project Management of such projects depending on their complexity and I n s t i t u t e ( P M B O K , 2 0 0 4 ) i n t h e f i e l d o f h u m a n nature. Human resource management also drastically resources to assess the conduct of different processes affects the total cost of the project because it controls in the construction sector. The assessment employed the productivity of materials and equipment that professionals from the governmental sector as well as constitutes the remainder of the direct costs (Lee et al., the private sector. 2004; Thomas et al., 2004; Loosemore et al., 2003; Maloney, 2003; AbouRizk et al., 2001; Allmon et al., 2. Efﬁciency of Human Resource Management 2000). However, this area of management application The construction industry in Kuwait suffers from has received little attention from researchers in the a lack of experienced local managers to satisfy the construction management ﬁeld. expanding demand for construction. This insufficient I n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , a c o m m o n l a c k o f experience results from being an emerging country e x p e r i e n c e e x i s t s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n m a n a g e m e n t (achieving independence in 1960) that still depends implementation. Management knowledge and skills mainly on the production of oil. This situation forces are gained through practice, training, and interacting the industry to use expatriates, mainly from other Arab w i t h o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e d i n d i v i d u a l s a n d e n t i t i e s . and Asian countries, to fill the required vacancies. The state of Kuwait has thus been working on the Over the past ﬁfty years, the construction authority has development of qualified citizens to take over local worked hard to develop local experience to substitute construction projects. After more than fifty years of f o r t h a t o f e x p a t r i a t e s . N o w, a s s e s s i n g t h e l o c a l such preparation, construction projects still depend on capacity to participate in the construction management expatriates, mainly from Arab and Asian countries, process is important. especially in the private sector. The assessment process is aimed at determining the reasons for the lack of local experience needed to carry out the management of construction projects and deﬁne the strengths and weaknesses in local professionals. *Contact Author: Karim El-Dash, Assistant Professor, College of Technological Studies, POB 42325, Shuwaikh, 3. Research Method Kuwait 70654 The current study presents a managerial assessment Tel: +965-931-0261 Fax: +965-231-4533 o f h u m a n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n E-mail: email@example.com projects in Kuwait from the practitioners' perspective. ( Received July 24, 2006 ; accepted January 29, 2007 ) Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/May 2007/71 65 T h e s t u d y u t i l i z e d t h e g u i d e l i n e s o f t h e P r o j e c t reporting relationships, and the creation of a staffing Management Institute in human resources to conduct management plan. With respect to planning, the study the study. The participants were Kuwaiti citizens with considered the environment of the project, including technical and managerial backgrounds and experience t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t , ranging from 15 to 32 years in construction projects. reporting relationships among the teams, cultural and The discussion sessions examined the guidelines of the language differences, and the level of trust apparent Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, a m o n g s t a k e h o l d e r s . T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e s p o n s e s 2004). indicated that the enterprise environment is well- A questionnaire was constructed and distributed to established according to the deﬁned items due to long the participants to assess the priority and efﬁciency of experience with other international establishments and the parameters and tools utilized in human resource previously recruited consultants. management. The questionnaire was divided into two Organizational process assets help project planning main categories. The first considered the inputs and based on accumulated information from previous outputs of human resource management processes, projects. The status in the government sector showed and the second category considered the various tools that these assets had already accumulated over the used in the field. The ranking of these management past years in the form of templates or checklists, roles parameters was developed using the analytic hierarchy and responsibilities, and safety considerations. In the process (AHP). The AHP was developed in the early private sector, the assets are not as well established as 1970s by Saaty to evaluate the relative importance in the government sector. In addition, no commercial of multivariate. The efficiency of each management documentation is available for the local market. parameter was evaluated on a five-point scale. The One of the major planning documents is the project value of ﬁve represented the highest efﬁciency, while management plan that includes PM activities such as one indicated the lowest efficiency. Fifty-seven (57) quality assurance, risk management, and procurement participants responded to the questionnaire. Fig.1. a n d c o n t r a c t s . U s u a l l y, a u t h o r i t i e s r e q u e s t f u l l presents the composition of the occupational classes of details to be submitted for approval through a strict the participants. Almost two thirds of the participants documentation life cycle. However, the updating of represented the owner side while the remaining third the project management plan is not as strict as for the consisted of engineers, contractors, or suppliers. initial approval. The weak point is that the preparation of the plan is performed by a contractor or project manager who is part of the private sector, where only 5% of the employees are citizens. Roles and responsibilities must be clear in the p r o j e c t p l a n . O rg a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g , d o c u m e n t i n g , a n d a s s i g n i n g p r o j e c t roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. In the private sector, the roles and responsibilities are well defined in most of the projects since the work breakdown structure and the corresponding responsibility is usually requested by the owner for initial approval. The problem usually arises in the functional management on the owner side where the roles and responsibilities are not as clear as on the Fig.1. Composition of participants contractor side. 4. HR Management Parameters b. Team Acquisition Four processes were considered in the study per Team acquisition is the process of obtaining the the PMBOK guide: planning, team acquisition, team human resources needed to accomplish the project. It development, and team management. Each process may include any additional stakeholder whose role has had inputs and outputs, which were considered in not yet been filled. Acquisition extends to engineers, this study to be managerial parameters that affect the contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers. implementation of the project. The following section Project staff assignments are the set of documents elaborates the effect of these parameters as revealed by t h a t r e f e r t o o ff i c i a l l y e m p l o y i n g t h e s t a ff . T h i s the discussions and responses from the professionals p a r a m e t e r a t t r a c t s s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e who participated in the study. c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y. M o s t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a. Planning a p p r e c i a t e d t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s f o r s t a ff Human resource planning is the initial process assignment, including the project's work breakdown i n h u m a n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t . I t i s c o m p r i s e d structure WBS, procurement process, policies and of the determination of roles, responsibilities, and regulations, recruitment rates, qualiﬁcations, required 66 JAABE vol.6 no.1 May 2007 Karim El-Dash training, and resource allocation with respect to the p r o j e c t . T h e s e d o c u m e n t s a r e u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e , project schedule. but often do not provide the required details. This c. Team Development lack of information leads to poor control of most Team development is the process of improving project processes. Another tool is networking. The the competencies and interaction of team members interaction among project stakeholders determines t o e n h a n c e p r o j e c t p e r f o r m a n c e . I n t h i s p r o c e s s , political and interpersonal factors that can influence i n d i v i d u a l a n d g r o u p s k i l l s n e e d t o b e e n h a n c e d the effectiveness of the stafﬁng management options. to improve the overall productivity of the project. Networking is one of the social habits of the Bedouin Performance assessment is a milestone in modern tribes, which makes it more likely to be imposed on management processes. Team performance assessment modernized organizational management. provides a clear picture of an integrated working team. On the other hand, organizational theory provides Unfortunately, although most teams in the construction i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e w a y s t h a t p e o p l e a n d i n d u s t r y w o r k t o g e t h e r o n s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s , t h e organizational units behave. Unfortunately, social life participants indicated that the assessment process is in Kuwait makes the implementation of organizational seldom conducted. This lack of assessment narrows the theory difﬁcult. Although the major policies are stated prospect for fast development and improvement in this in writing or by tradition, exceptions to these policies category. are commonly accepted. d. Team Management b. Team Acquisition Te a m m a n a g e m e n t i n v o l v e s t h e p r o c e s s e s o f Preassignment is a tool used when project team following performance, providing feedback, resolving members are known in advance. This use is valid in issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project the government sector based on the policies of the performance (Thomas and Zavrski, 1999; Thomas et organization and can be based on experience or a turn al., 2003). Managing team members on construction in the assignment process. In the private sector, this projects is a major challenge because of loyalty to the preassignment could be carried out when a special functional manager in the government departments. need for high expertise exists in a complex project. In the private sector, this aspect has been nullified, Negotiation is another tool carried out with staff to and most employees on the construction projects compromise the functional duties against project are following the project organization matrix. Team requirements. Practically, this process occurs in the management is one of the poorest areas in the ﬁeld of private sector and rarely in government establishments. construction management in Kuwait. Eventually, acquisition is the common tool used with Another parameter that affects team management investment firms or governmental authorities, where is changes in project staff, which drastically reduces contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers are found project performance. This change has greater effect outside the organization. Sometimes, the engineer or when it happens in top management of the project. the project manager is also acquired from outside. A l t h o u g h c h a n g e s i n g o v e r n m e n t m a n a g e m e n t c. Team Development positions are rare in construction projects, when they Management skills are very important in construction occur, they can ruin the project in terms of time and projects, as well as in other application areas. The high cost. capacity of understanding the nature and requirements Corrective action is a serious parameter in team of employees enhances the competency of the team m a n a g e m e n t . I n h u m a n r e s o u r c e s , t h e i m p a c t o f members and groups. Training is a prime tool for team corrective actions is similar to that of change. The development. It includes all activities designed to study responses showed that, in many cases, corrective enhance the competencies of the project team members action and changes in the Kuwait construction industry (Allmon et al., 2000). Training programs are usually are carried out based more on personal interests than well developed and organized. The conduct of training project requirements. activities is also professional. The main problem in training activities is the assignment of the appropriate 5. HR Management Tools person to conduct the training program. M a n a g e m e n t t o o l s a r e t h e s e t o f m e t h o d s t h a t Team building is the process of inﬂuencing a group f a c i l i t a t e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f m a n a g e m e n t of different individuals with their own goals, needs, parameters to achieve the goals of a project. The skill and perspectives to work together effectively. The levels of the stakeholders in using these tools need to goal is that the team effort will accomplish more than be high enough to generate the required productivity of the sum of the individual efforts. Team building is a the individuals and the teams. great challenge in Kuwait because of customs that a. Planning have developed in the local culture over many years. M a n y t o o l s a r e u s e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Individual human nature and tribal loyalties resist most O rg an ization char ts ar e do cu ments th at s tate th e attempts to create a team paradigm. r o l e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e a c h p e r s o n o n t h e T h e o r i g i n a l p l a n s c o n c e r n i n g w a y s t o r e w a r d JAABE vol.6 no.1 May 2007 Karim El-Dash 67 people are well developed during the planning process. environment and the other parameters. In the second Reward decisions through performance appraisals category, five parameters may be grouped together. are made during the process of managing the project T h e s e p a r a m e t e r s a r e t h e p r o j e c t m a n a g e m e n t team. Recognition and reward should consider cultural plan, performance reports, allocation of roles and differences. In cultures that encourage individualism, responsibilities, team performance assessment, and the rewarding team development is difﬁcult. stafﬁng management plan. The remaining parameters d. Team Management under consideration may be grouped together into a Observations are essential for project and staff third category of less importance, as indicated by the evaluation through the sequential progress of the collected data. Column (4) provides the eigenvalues project. The management team should observe using of each parameter as obtained from the AHP. These speciﬁc metrics, such as earned value, individual and eigenvalues represent the weight of each parameter team productivity, and consistency with the project's w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e w h o l e m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s . baseline. The discussions and written responses of Column (5) provides an average of the weights of the the participants in this study showed that construction parameters for each process. These values provide the project managers pay less attention to the attitudes of deduced weights for each process. Column (6) provides the project's staff than they do to output regarding the the percentage weight of each process. The values of project's cost and schedule. the process weights indicated that planning was given A project performance appraisal depends on the the most importance according to the participants l e n g t h o f t h e p r o j e c t , c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t , w h i l e t e a m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t e a m m a n a g e m e n t organizational policy, labor contracts, and regular received the least appreciation from the participants. communication. A performance appraisal is needed This finding reflects the attitudes of the participants in a construction project to ensure that roles and who have extensive experience of project planning and responsibilities are optimized (Thomas and Zavrski, indicates that team development and team management 1999). Changes and corrective actions regarding the skills are far below the necessary level as discussed at project's human resources are usually based on these the beginning of this paper. Column (7) provides the appraisals. weight of each parameter in a percentage form with Conﬂict management is another tool that results in respect to its process. greater productivity and better relationships. Team The participants assigned an efficiency level to ground rules and solid project management reduce each parameter based on the practical conduct of the potential for conflict. In the local culture, using construction project management. The efﬁciency level confrontation to solve project conflicts is difficult. was rated on a ﬁve-point scale from one to ﬁve, with U s u a l l y, s m o o t h i n g t h e p r o b l e m i s a c o m m o n five being the most efficient and one being the least response for both internal and external conflict. This efﬁcient. Column (8) of Table 1. provides the average management weakness leads to recurrence of the efficiency factor for each parameter as determined conﬂict. from the data provided by the respondents. Column (9) provides the average of the efficiency factors for 6. Analysis each process. It is noted that the planning process The collected data was analyzed based on a dual h a s t h e h i g h e s t e ff i c i e n c y f o l l o w e d b y t h e t e a m comparison. Each parameter was compared to the acquisition process, while team development and team other parameter and ranked from one to nine using odd management have the lowest efficiency factors. The numbers (1, 3, 5, 7, 9) with "9" indicating that the ﬁrst low level of team integration and team morale became parameter is much more important than the second. clear from the quantiﬁed results and these factors were T h e i m p o r t a n c e v a l u e o f " 1 " i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h ranked low, as described above. parameters are of equal importance. On the contrary, The weight and level of efﬁciency of the parameters a comparison value of 1/3, 1/5, 1/7, and 1/9 indicated w e r e c o m b i n e d i n a p e r f o r m a n c e f a c t o r. T h e that the first parameter was less important than the performance factor of each parameter is obtained second parameter. The results provide a consistency as the product of a parameter's weight per process ratio of 0.12, which is very close to the value of 0.1, [Column (7)] times the assigned efficiency of this usually considered the limit for acceptance. speciﬁc parameter [Column (8)]. The result of this step a. Human Resource Management Parameters is offered in Column (10). The performance factors of Table 1. shows a summary of the results obtained all parameters from the same process were then added for the assessment of the human resource management together to calculate the overall performance factor of parameters in construction projects. The eigenvalues the process, as provided in Column (11). It is easily of the parameters show that enterprise environment observed from the table that the planning and team is considered the prime factor in construction project acquisition processes have similar performance factors human resource management. A large difference is of around 3.25. On the other hand, the performance shown between the importance values of the enterprise factors obtained for team development and team 68 JAABE vol.6 no.1 May 2007 Karim El-Dash Table 1. Efﬁciency of human resources management parameters (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Parameter Parameter Parameter Process Process Process Process # Process Parameter Weight per Efﬁciency Performance Weight Weight weight % Efﬁciency Performance Process % (7) * (8) 1 Enterprise Environment 0.2466 42% 3.68 1.5413 2 Organizational Process 0.0164 3% 3.47 0.0968 3 Project Management Plan 0.1379 23% 3.03 0.7095 Planning 0.0982 35% 3.20 3.25 4 Roles & Responsibilities 0.0909 15% 2.36 0.3641 Project Organization 5 0.0151 3% 3.39 0.0869 Charts 6 Stafﬁng Management Plan 0.0820 14% 3.26 0.4539 7 Enterprise Environment 0.2466 50% 3.68 1.8571 8 Organizational Process 0.0164 3% 3.47 0.1166 9 Roles & Responsibilities 0.0909 19% 2.36 0.4387 Project Organization 10 Acquisition 0.0151 0.0698 25% 3% 3.39 3.12 0.1047 3.30 Charts 11 Stafﬁng Management Plan 0.0820 17% 3.26 0.5469 12 Project Staff Assignments 0.0249 5% 3.43 0.1749 13 Resource Availability 0.0128 3% 2.23 0.0585 14 Project Staff Assignments 0.0249 12% 3.43 0.4122 15 Stafﬁng Management Plan 0.0820 40% 3.26 1.2888 Team 0.0519 19% 2.79 2.78 16 Resource Availability 0.0128 6% 2.23 0.1378 Development Team Performance 17 0.0877 42% 2.23 0.9426 Assessment Organizational Process 18 0.0164 2% 3.47 0.0770 Assets 19 Project Staff Assignments 0.0249 3% 3.43 0.1155 20 Roles & Responsibilities 0.0909 12% 2.36 0.2895 Project Organization 21 0.0151 2% 3.39 0.0691 Charts 22 Stafﬁng Management Plan 0.0820 11% 3.26 0.3610 Team Performance Team 23 0.0877 12% 2.23 0.2640 0.0582 21% 2.77 2.65 Assessment Management Work Performance 24 0.0537 7% 2.59 0.1878 Information 25 Performance Reports 0.1110 15% 2.17 0.3253 26 Changes 0.0316 4% 2.47 0.1053 27 Corrective Actions 0.0482 7% 2.45 0.1595 28 Preventive Actions 0.0412 6% 2.33 0.1296 29 Project Management Plan 0.137895 19% 3.03 0.5642 management processes are considerably lower, with and team management. These results reflect the real values around 2.7. Fig.2. presents the distribution of need of the employees for more appreciation through the weights of each process as deduced from the data recognition and reward systems. In addition, enhancing collected. the sentiments of individuals toward the team, project, b. Human Resource Management Tools and firm is useful. The process weights illustrate The tools and techniques utilized by the project the importance of team development, which has a management team in the human resource management calculated process weight of 51%. Team management process in construction projects were investigated using tools come next with an importance weight of 25%, the same method as used for the management parameter while planning and team acquisition have low tool discussed earlier. Table 2. presents a summary of the weights of 16% and 8%, respectively, as shown in results of these management tools. The eigenvalues Fig.3. of the managerial tools show that recognition and Ta b l e 2 . s h o w s t h e v a l u e s p r o p o s e d b y t h e rewards were indicated as the most important tool to participants for the efficiency factors of each of the enhance the competence of the working staff. Four managerial tools and techniques considered. Planning tools could be grouped together in a second category tools have the highest efficiency factors, with all of according to the calculated eigenvalues. These tools are its factors around the value of 3.30 on a five-point general management skills, training, observation and scale. Team acquisition tools received an efficiency conversation, and team building, sorted in descending evaluation around the average of 2.79, while the order. It is easily observed that all of these tools and negotiation process shows high efﬁciency with a factor techniques are associated with team development of 3.48. Team development tools have lower efﬁciency JAABE vol.6 no.1 May 2007 Karim El-Dash 69 Table 2. Efﬁciency of human resources management tools (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Parameter Parameter Parameter Process Process Process Process # Process Parameter Weight per Efﬁciency Performance Weight Weight Weight % Efﬁciency Performance Process % (7) * (8) 1 Organization Charts 0.0182 19% 3.39 0.635407 2 Planning Networking 0.0544 0.0324 16% 56% 3.23 3.29 1.80892 3.27 3 Organizational Theory 0.0246 25% 3.25 0.820713 4 Pre-assignment 0.0116 18% 2.33 0.417967 5 Negotiation 0.0303 47% 3.48 1.63167 Acquisition 0.0161 8% 2.79 3.00 6 Acquisition 0.0127 20% 2.77 0.546238 7 Virtual Teams 0.0100 15% 2.59 0.400275 8 General Management Skills 0.1354 21% 2.47 0.530714 9 Training 0.1098 17% 2.62 0.456378 10 Team Building 0.0848 13% 2.23 0.300105 Team Development 0.1050 51% 2.66 2.38 11 Ground Rules 0.0412 7% 2.63 0.17192 12 Co-location 0.0285 5% 3.99 0.18044 13 Recognition & Awards 0.2305 37% 2.02 0.738871 14 Observation & Conversation 0.0908 44% 2.10 0.91659 15 Performance Appraisals 0.0564 27% 2.17 0.587736 Team Management 0.0520 25% 2.33 2.25 16 Conﬂict Management 0.0422 20% 2.58 0.523635 17 Issue log 0.0187 9% 2.47 0.221616 Fig.4. Performance of HR Management Parameters and Tools Fig.2. Weight of HR Management Parameters management tools have the lowest appreciation for efﬁciency. The efﬁciency factors for this process have an average score of 2.33 with all factors below 2.60. The best performance factor for the managerial tools was from planning tools, with a performance factor of 3.27. Team acquisition comes next with a performance factor of 3.00 and then team development and team management with factors as low as 2.38 and 2.25, respectively. The low performance factors for team development and team management processes reinforce the finding that construction projects in Kuwait are in strong need of more attention to team trust and cohesiveness among team members to raise project productivity. The comparison between the performance of the Fig.3. Weight of HR Management Tools managerial parameters and the managerial tools in factors, with an average of 2.66. Colocation is the only the construction projects in Kuwait, as indicated by tool in the team development process that has a high the participants, is shown in Fig.4. The ﬁgure shows efficiency factor of 3.99 while all other tools have that a strong need exists to improve the awareness, factors less than 2.65. It should be noticed that the k n o w l e d g e , a n d s k i l l s o f t h e t e a m d e v e l o p m e n t nature of construction projects forces colocation. Team a n d t e a m m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s e s t o i m p r o v e t h e 70 JAABE vol.6 no.1 May 2007 Karim El-Dash productivity of construction projects in Kuwait. Project References 1) A b o u R i z k S . , K n o w l e s , P. , a n d H e r m a n n , U . R . , ( 2 0 0 1 ) , planning and team acquisition are in a better situation "Estimating Labor Production Rates for Industrial Construction because of the previous involvement of international Activities", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ﬁrms and personnel. This involvement has helped the Vol. 127, No. 6, November-December, pp.502-511. establishment of a project initiation system for the 2) Allmon, E., Haas, C. T., Borcherding, J. D., and Goodrum, P. M., Kuwaiti authorities and large local construction ﬁrms. (2000), "U.S. Construction Labor Productivity Trends, 1970– 1998", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 126, No. 2, March-April, pp.97-104. 7. Summary and Conclusions 3) Lee, H. S., Yu, J. H., and Kim, S. K., (2004), "Impact of Labor The study presented here introduced a methodology Factors on Workﬂow", Journal of Construction Engineering and to evaluate human resource management processes on Management, Vol. 130, No. 6, December, pp.918-923. 4) Loosemore, M., Dainty, A., and Lingard, H., (2003), "Human construction projects. It used the inputs, outputs, and Resource Management in Construction Projects: Strategic and tools and techniques recommended by the guidelines of Operational Approach", Spon Press, Taylor and Francis Group, the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, London, UK. 2004). The inputs and outputs of each process were 5) Maloney, W. F., (2003), "Labor-Management Cooperation and considered as the parameters in the HR management Customer Satisfaction", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 129, No. 2, April, pp.165-172. process. The tools and techniques were dealt with as a 6) Project Management Institute (PMI), (2004), "A Guide to the separate category. The opinions of experts in the ﬁeld Project Management Body of Knowledge - PMBOK", PMI, of construction projects were collected regarding the Pennsylvania, USA. importance of the considered managerial parameters 7) Saaty, T. L., (1980), "The Analytic Hierarchy Process", McGraw and tools. The AHP was utilized to evaluate the order Hill International, NY, USA. 8) Thomas, H. R., and Zavrski, I., (1999), "Construction Baseline of each parameter. The performance of each process Productivity: Theory and Practice", Journal of Construction presented the importance weight and the proposed Engineering and Management, Vol. 125, No. 5, September- level of efﬁciency of that variable. October, pp.295-303. The results of the study can be summarized by the 9) Thomas, H. R., Horman, M. J., Minchin, R. E., and Chen, D., following points: (2003), "Improving Labor Flow Reliability for Better Productivity a s L e a n C o n s t r u c t i o n P r i n c i p l e " , J o u r n a l o f C o n s t r u c t i o n H u m a n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n Engineering and Management, Vol. 129, No. 3, June, pp.251-261. projects in Kuwait is below the targeted international 10) Thomas, H. R., Horman, M. J., and Lemes de Souza, U. E., standard. (2004), "Symbiotic Crew Relationship and Labor Flow", Journal Planning activities are the most developed process of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 130, No. 6, December, pp.908-917. in the HR management processes. • Team development and team management processes are far below the level desired/needed to enhance the productivity of construction projects. • The tenure stability of the citizens reduces loyalty toward the project entity much less than loyalty toward the functional entity. T h e f o l l o w i n g m a i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c a n b e deduced for the construction industry in Kuwait: S t r e s s i n g p r i v a t i z a t i o n f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n industry will attract citizens to the private sector and encourage them to enhance their competence capacities. • Improving communications among stakeholders inside and outside jobsites would also improve team productivity. Allowing more space for recognition and rewards in private and government sectors would encourage individuals to exert optimum effort on projects. Moreover, relating rewards to training activities, t e a m b u i l d i n g , g r o u n d r u l e s , a n d p e r f o r m a n c e reports is important. • Improving the observation system in the government sector throughout the project life cycle and relating these observations to a standard metric would be beneﬁcial. JAABE vol.6 no.1 May 2007 Karim El-Dash 71
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: May 1, 2007
Keywords: assessment; construction; human resources; project management
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.