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Acquisition and Generalization of a Conditioned-Fear Response in Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic Criminals

Acquisition and Generalization of a Conditioned-Fear Response in Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic... Published as a separate and in The Journal of Psychology, 1965, 59, 367-37 ACQUISITION AND GENERALIZATION OF A CONDITIONED-FEAR RESPONSE IN PSYCHOPATHIC AND NONPSYCHOPATHIC CRIMINALS* Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia ROBERT D. HARE A. INTRODUCTION Mowrer's hypothesis that response inhibition is mediated by conditioned fear ( 12) provides the basis for suggesting that the psychopath's repeated failure to avoid punishment (2, 7) is a function of his poor fear condition­ ability (1, 9) . The author assumes that cues associated with response­ produced punishment are incapable of eliciting sufficient fear in the psychopath for the response (often an antisocial one) to be inhibited. Recent research ( 4, 6) suggests that this may be particularly so when the punishment is anticipated as occurring in the future. The present study tests the hypothesis that not only do psychopaths develop conditioned-fear responses slowly, but that such responses, once acquired, are generalized less by psychopathic than by nonpsychopathic individuals. Such a hypothesis is consistent with the psychopath's relatively low anxiety level (2, 7, 9) and with the evidence that the degree of generalization is related directly to level of anxiety (see 11 ) . B. METHOD Subjects were male volunteers and http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Psychology Taylor & Francis

Acquisition and Generalization of a Conditioned-Fear Response in Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic Criminals

The Journal of Psychology , Volume 59 (2): 4 – Mar 1, 1965

Acquisition and Generalization of a Conditioned-Fear Response in Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic Criminals

The Journal of Psychology , Volume 59 (2): 4 – Mar 1, 1965

Abstract

Published as a separate and in The Journal of Psychology, 1965, 59, 367-37 ACQUISITION AND GENERALIZATION OF A CONDITIONED-FEAR RESPONSE IN PSYCHOPATHIC AND NONPSYCHOPATHIC CRIMINALS* Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia ROBERT D. HARE A. INTRODUCTION Mowrer's hypothesis that response inhibition is mediated by conditioned fear ( 12) provides the basis for suggesting that the psychopath's repeated failure to avoid punishment (2, 7) is a function of his poor fear condition­ ability (1, 9) . The author assumes that cues associated with response­ produced punishment are incapable of eliciting sufficient fear in the psychopath for the response (often an antisocial one) to be inhibited. Recent research ( 4, 6) suggests that this may be particularly so when the punishment is anticipated as occurring in the future. The present study tests the hypothesis that not only do psychopaths develop conditioned-fear responses slowly, but that such responses, once acquired, are generalized less by psychopathic than by nonpsychopathic individuals. Such a hypothesis is consistent with the psychopath's relatively low anxiety level (2, 7, 9) and with the evidence that the degree of generalization is related directly to level of anxiety (see 11 ) . B. METHOD Subjects were male volunteers and

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References (8)

Publisher
Taylor & Francis
Copyright
Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN
1940-1019
eISSN
0022-3980
DOI
10.1080/00223980.1965.10544625
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Published as a separate and in The Journal of Psychology, 1965, 59, 367-37 ACQUISITION AND GENERALIZATION OF A CONDITIONED-FEAR RESPONSE IN PSYCHOPATHIC AND NONPSYCHOPATHIC CRIMINALS* Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia ROBERT D. HARE A. INTRODUCTION Mowrer's hypothesis that response inhibition is mediated by conditioned fear ( 12) provides the basis for suggesting that the psychopath's repeated failure to avoid punishment (2, 7) is a function of his poor fear condition­ ability (1, 9) . The author assumes that cues associated with response­ produced punishment are incapable of eliciting sufficient fear in the psychopath for the response (often an antisocial one) to be inhibited. Recent research ( 4, 6) suggests that this may be particularly so when the punishment is anticipated as occurring in the future. The present study tests the hypothesis that not only do psychopaths develop conditioned-fear responses slowly, but that such responses, once acquired, are generalized less by psychopathic than by nonpsychopathic individuals. Such a hypothesis is consistent with the psychopath's relatively low anxiety level (2, 7, 9) and with the evidence that the degree of generalization is related directly to level of anxiety (see 11 ) . B. METHOD Subjects were male volunteers and

Journal

The Journal of PsychologyTaylor & Francis

Published: Mar 1, 1965

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