1070-4272/02/7510-1723 $27.00 C 2002 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 75, No. 10, 2002, p. 1723. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 75, No. 10, 2002,
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2002 by Morachevskii, Beloglazov.
Yanko, E.A., Anody alyuminievukh elektrolizerov
(Anodes of Aluminum Electrolyzers), Moscow:
Ruda i Metally, 2001, 670 pp.
Anodes, playing an important part in the tech-
nology of aluminum manufacture by electrolysis, af-
fect the energy consumption and the level of environ-
ment protection. In the last three decades, the alumi-
num industry of quite a number of largest countries3
aluminum manufacturers has mostly or completely
changed over to energy-saving technologies with the
maximum possible level of environment protection.
The key measure in such a conversion is to install
electrolyzers with high power (up to 2003300 kA)
with prebaked anodes. This makes it possible to raise
somewhat the current efficiency (to 93395%), make
lower the energy expenditure per ton of aluminum by
150032000 kW h, and, what is the most important,
to resolve with more success the ecological problems.
With baked anodes, it becomes possible to diminish
to a minimum the discharge of fluorides into the at-
mosphere and preclude entirely the discharge of ar-
omatic hydrocarbons and tars, including carcinogens.
In Russia, up to 90% of aluminum is manufactured
with the use of self-baking anodes. In the foreseeable
future, reconstruction of the Russian aluminum pants
seems to be unlikely. In this connection, a topical task
is to improve the technology of operation of elec-
trolyzers with self-baking anodes and to lower the
discharge of noxious compounds to admissible levels.
E.A. Yanko’s monograph, summarizing the experi-
ence gained in working with both types of anodes
and discussing their advantages and disadvantages, is
of indubitable interest for Russian aluminum manu-
facturers. The book comprises an introduction, 11
chapters, and a list of references.
A brief introduction (pp. 338) considers the trans-
port-technological schemes for production of the
anode mass for self-baking anodes and for manufac-
ture of baked anodes. It is the analysis of the elements
of these schemes that mainly constitutes the mono-
graph, which has purely industrial orientation.
The first chapter (pp. 9355) describes raw mate-
rials for production of the anode mass and anodes-
coal-tar pitch and electrode coke. The properties of
both the components and requirements to them are
presented with exhaustive completeness. The second
chapter (pp. 563125) gives an equally detailed de-
scription of coke calcination procedure. By this term
is meant coke treatment at high temperature (11503
1350oC) in a reductive atmosphere. Under these con-
ditions, moisture and volatiles are removed, the coke
structure becomes denser, and there occurs partial
graphitization. Main attention is given to describ-
ing the process technology. A small third chapter
(pp. 1263139) considers storage coal-tar pitch and
its preparation for the technological process, with
much attention given to monitoring of its quality and
to its aggregative state. The fourth chapter (pp. 1403
204) mainly describes the apparatus used in preparing
stock for manufacture of the anode mass. All kinds
of apparatus for crushing and milling are described
in ample detail.
The fifth chapter (pp. 2053250) presents evidence
concerning the formulations of the anode mass. The-
oretical foundations of the anode structure formation,
the optimal granulometric composition of the anode
mass, and dosage of stock components are discussed.
The sixth chapter (pp. 2513310) considers technol-
ogies for anode mass mixing and mixing apparatus.
The seventh (pp. 3113353) and eighth (pp. 3543469)
chapters describe the processes for forming and bak-
ing of the anode units. The ninth chapter (pp. 4703
522) describes in detail the procedures used in dis-
mantling worked-out anodes and mounting new ones.
The tenth (pp. 5233595) and eleventh (pp. 5963655)
chapters compare the advantages, disadvantages, and
specific features of baked and self-baking anodes.
The author noted, in particular, that electrolyzers
with self-baking anodes have not exhausted their po-
tentialities and can be regarded as a promising object
of further modernization. In the author’s opinion, it
is apparently advisable to use electrolyzers of this
kind for manufacture of aluminum in regions that
are remote from large settlements and are not subject
to stringent ecological requirements.
The bibliography (pp. 6563666) contains references
to 246 studies by domestic and foreign researchers.
The book contains a vast body of reference ma-
terial and describes in detail the apparatus and tech-
nologies used in manufacture of anodes. Less suc-
cessful are separate inclusions of physicochemical
and electrochemical nature. The book is very well
A.G. Morachevskii, I.N. Beloglazov