ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2017, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp. 151−159. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2017.
The text was submitted by the authors in English.
Metal oxides nanocomposites have wide range of
applications in fuel cells, battery materials, ceramics,
chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensor, and solar cells
due to their distinctive and tunable properties such as
optical, magnetic, electrical, mechanical, thermal, and
catalytic [1–3]. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and NiO nanoparticles
(semiconductor oxide)  have been studied extensively
because of their wide band gap (3.37 and 3.35 eV,
respectively) and large binding energy (60 meV) [5–7].
They have wide range of applications [5, 6], e.g., gas and
chemical sensors , biosensors , cosmetics, storage
batteries, ceramics , optica, and electrical devices ,
window displays, solar cells , drug-delivery [12-15],
catalysis  and solid oxide fuel cells .
Semiconductor nanopaticles like cadmium sulﬁ de
(CdS) nanoparticles have immense importance because of
its photoelectric and chemical properties which depends
on particle size, crystalline structure, and band gap .
CdS signiﬁ cant variation in its electrical and optical
properties due to its strong quantum conﬁ nement effects
showed reactive and selective photocatalysis  and
enhancement in ﬂ uorescence efﬁ ciency .
Many nanocomposites have been reported in literature
prepared by using precipitation , sol-gel [22, 23],
ultra-sonication [24, 25], chemical vapour deposition
, hydrothermal [27, 28], and ﬂ ame pyrolysis methods.
The structural and optical properties of the nanomate-
rials are of great signiﬁ cance. XRD peak proﬁ le analysis
is used to investigate the crystallite size and strain effect
due to peak broadening effect in nanomaterials, which
further assists in investigating lattice parameters like
strain, dislocation density, and bond length. The decrease
in crystallite size causes increase in strain and variation
in dislocation density depends on the nature of nanoma-
The optical band gap and refractive index are the most
signiﬁ cant parameters in semiconducting materials. The
optical behaviour of nanomaterials determines the optical
parameters like extinction coefﬁ cient, refractive index,
X-Ray Peak Proﬁ ling, Optical Parameters and Catalytic
Properties of Pure and CdS Doped
Maryam Allah Ditta, Muhammad Akhyar Farrukh*,
Shaista Ali, and Naeem Younas
Nano-Chemistry Lab., GC University Lahore, Lahore-54000, Pakistan
* e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received February 8, 2017
Abstract—In the current study, XRD peak proﬁ le analysis, optical and catalytic properties of pure ZnO–NiO and
CdS doped ZnO-NiO nanocomposites were investigated. Average crystallite size, strain, dislocation density and
bond length were determined with X-ray peak proﬁ le analysis. Optical properties such as band gap, extinction
coefﬁ cient, refractive index, optical conductivity, and dielectric constants were studied by solid phase spectroscopy
(SPS). The blue shift was observed in ZnO–NiO as compare to bulk ZnO due to the quantum conﬁ nement while
red shift was found in CdS/ZnO–NiO nanocomposites as compare to ZnO– NiO nanocomposites is due to bulk
defects inducing delocalization and pressure induced effect. The optical conductivity of ZnO–NiO nanocomposites
was observed increased with doping of CdS on ZnO–NiO from 4.57 × 10
to 6.71 × 10
, respectively. It was
observed that catalytic efﬁ ciency depends on the particle size and band gap of the nanocomposites.