WETTABILITY OF TUNDISH PERICLASE LINING BY STEEL
and E. Kandan
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 1, pp. 63 – 68, January, 2006.
Original article submitted May 17, 2005.
Results of a study of the wettability of the tundish periclase lining by molten steel using a sessile drop method
are presented. The wetting angle q tends to decrease with increase in temperature and contact time on adding
glass fiber and Fe
powder in excess of 2% to the magnesite powder; a similar effect is observed in steels
high in manganese. An increase in angle q is observed on adding carbon fiber or glass fiber (not in excess of
1%) to the magnesite powder; the angle q tends to increase with increase in MgO powder grain size and with
carbon contained in steel in excess of 0.04%.
In recent years, there has been an increased demand for
steels with a low impurity content. Technologically, the tun-
dish ladle is the last refractory-lined vessel in which the mol-
ten steel is processed metallurgically before pouring into
molds. MgO-based refractory materials are preferred for
making the hot layer of the refractory lining of the tundish la-
dle. To increase the strength of the lining (normally applied
using a gunning technique), additives are introduced into the
gunning mix — paper fiber (coarse- or fine-fibrous), mineral
wool, glass fiber, expandable clay, and polystyrene beads
[1 – 3].
The interaction between tundish lining and molten steel
and slag is an important concern for manufacturing high-pu
rity steels. This interaction involves two related phenomena:
wetting and reaction between the three components, which
determines the service life of the refractory and the proper
ties of molded preforms, slabs, and blooms [4, 5]. To deter
mine the wettability of a solid substrate by molten metal,
Young’s equation is conventionally used :
cos q =(g
where q is the wetting angle, deg; g
is the surface tension of
the solid; g
is the energy of surface interaction between the
liquid and the solid; g
is the surface tension of the liquid.
As is known, the liquid wets the solid if q <90°;in
unwettable systems, it is q >90°.
Data have been reported on the wettability of various re-
fractory surfaces [7 – 21] by molten iron and steel [7 – 9]
and on their interaction with gas media [7 – 9, 11, 21] and
molten slag [7 – 9].
In [13 – 16], the wettability of aluminosilicate refrac-
tories by steel or iron was studied; in , the effect of
Steel 35 on corundum composites was studied, and in ,
the wetting angle q at zirconium surfaces and molten iron
was measured. MgO is the most widely used material for
manufacturing the tundish lining; still, data on the wettability
of periclase lining by molten steel and the effect of additives
on wettability are sadly lacking [7, 22]. Therefore our goal in
this work was to study the wettability of MgO by molten
The low-carbon steels were made available from the
Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Turkey); their composition is
given in Table 1. The tests were carried out by a sessile drop
method; the test specimens were cubes of steel weighing
about 0.3 g; the substrate was a magnesite powder of compo
sition, wt.%: MgO, 95.08; SiO
, 2.49; CaO, 1.73; Fe
, 0.16. The powder particles were 0 – 600 mmin
diameter (Fig. 1).
A fiber filler and water (25 wt.%) were added to a por
tion of dry powder; the mixture was thoroughly homoge
nized for 15 min and then put in a mold with dimensions of
30 ´ 30 ´ 10 mm. The molded mixture was kept at room
temperature for 24 h, dried at 350°C for 4 h, and sintered at
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 1, 2006
1083-4877/06/4701-0068 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Karaelmas University, Karabuk, Turkey; Gazi University, An
kara, Turkey; Eregli Iron and Steel Works Co., Erdemir, Eregli,