WEAR MECHANISM FOR PERICLASE MATERIAL
IN OPEN-HEARTH FURNACE BOTTOMS
E. N. Gramenitskii,
A. M. Batanova,
T. I. Shekina,
V. P. Grigor’ev,
A. N. Pyrikov,
E. A. Vasin,
B. N. Grigor’ev,
and A. V. Likhodievskii
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 47 – 53, November 2008.
Original article submitted June 30, 2008.
Results are provided for a mineral petrographic study of reaction with molten metals of refractory material
grade PPM-85 produced by OAO Kombinat Magnezit. Features are revealed for the change in its phase and
chemical composition and the wear mechanism is considered during operation in an open-hearth furnace.
Results of mineral petrographic studies of magnesia ma
terials used in the hearths of open-hearth furnaces make it
possible to reveal features of the change in phase and chemi-
cal compositions of refractory mixes subjected to chemical
corrosion during reaction with metallurgical melts in service.
In this work the wear mechanism has been studied for the
bottoms of open-hearth furnaces during service using mag-
nesia powders grade PPM-85 produced by OAO Kombinat
Magnezit for ramming them. Ankerhearth  and Jehearth
 magnesia-dolomite mixes produced overseas have been
Material PPM-85 has been studied before and after oper
ation in an open-hearth furnace bottom in OAO Chusovoi
Metallurgical Plant. Optical and electron microscopy, local
x-ray spectral (microprobe), silicate and x-ray phases analy
ses were used for this purpose. In order to study the reaction
column forming in a refractory material of the hearth a pro
cedure was used developed for metasomatic natural pro
cesses  and processes of magmatic displacement of rock
by magmatic melts .
The original mix PPM-85 (GOST 24682) based on fired
magnesite is a light-gray powder with a predominant grain
size of tenths of a millimeter (specimen M32); 20 – 30% of
the volume consists of a different size (up to 8 mm), together
with aggregates of periclase grains, sintered into a dense firm
mix and cemented with calcium silicates. According to x-ray
phase analysis data samples of different fractions of the orig-
inal mix consist of 84% periclase and 16% x-ray amorphous
substance. The individual reflections are identified as be-
longing to tri- and bicalcium silicates. Silicate analysis was
used to determine the empirical chemical composition of an
average sample selected from material of different fractions
(Table 1). This analysis rested upon comparison with data for
the material composition after service. Local x-ray spectral
analysis was used to study the phase and empirical chemical
composition of coarse fragments with a size of 3–5mm
(Tables 1 and 2).
According to electron microscopy data periclase of the
original material is aggregates of polygonal grains (Fig. 1a )
with a size of 0.5 – 2.0 mm (predominantly a size of 0.1 mm)
and it has a stable iron coefficient of 0.03. The binding mass
in the form streaky strips with a width up to 0.1 mm consists
of crystals of bicalcium silicate and skeletal strips, i.e. cal
cium titanate (perovskite), forming typical growths. Within
the composition of bicalcium silicate 10 – 12% Ca replaces
Mg; in addition, within it there are permanently present ad
mixtures of Ti, Al and Fe. Within the composition of
perovskite phase 10% titanium is replaced by Al; in addition
it contains admixtures of Si, Mg and Fe.
It follows from Table 1 that according to empirical sili
cate analysis data the center of a specimen of the original
material contains more SiO
, but less iron oxides than for
coarse fragments. This points to the nonuniformity of the
mineral composition of different fractions of the original ma
terial. Material tested by both analysis methods differs mark
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 49, No. 6, 2008
1083-4877/08/4906-0469 © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
Moscow State Institute of Steels and Alloys, Moscow, Russia.
International Academy of Sciences of Ecology, Human Safety
and Nature, Moscow, Russia.
OAO Chusovoi Metallurgical Plant, Chusovoi, Perm Region,
OOO OgneuporTreidGrup, Moscow, Russia.
T. A. Kurbyko, V. A. Reshetnikov, M. R. Yarmukhametov, and
M. Yu. Chirkov participated in this work.