Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 5, pp. 911−913.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
I.V. Vol’f, A.V. Romanov, M.A. Sinyakova, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 5, pp. 858−860.
Water Treatment for Steam Generators
with the Aid of Ion Exchangers
I. V. Vol’f, A. V. Romanov, and M. A. Sinyakova
St. Petersburg State Technological University of Plant Polyners, St. Petersburg, Russia
JSC “SRI Atmosphere,” , St. Petersburg, Russia
St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received December 9, 2009
Abstract—A method for simultaneous desalting and deoxygenation of feed and extra water was developed for
through steam generators using ion-exchange mixed bed ﬁ lters and the ﬁ lter with ferrous hydroxide electron ion
exchanger which eliminates the stage of thermal deaeration.
Mixed bed ﬁ lters (MBFs) are widely used for deep
desalination of the feed water. They include a mixture of
a strong-acid cation exchanger in H-form and of strong-
alkali anion one in OH-form. An efﬁ ciency of the water
desalination controlled by its electroconductivity is
ensured up to a level being required to distilled water:
from 2 to 2.5 μS cm
In the case of the deoxygenation of water for boilers
of supercritical steam parameters traditionally is used
thermal deaeration . However this method possesses
several disadvantages: the installations are of energy-
intensive, bulky and expensive; and in addition heated
so-called “conditionally pure” water, whose discharges
into rivers and lakes leads to disruption of the established
biological balance, is generated in the course of their
In the mid-twentieth century in the USSR were
developed methods of manufacture of the ferrous
hydroxide electron ion exchangers (EIE) [2, 3]: materials
on the basis of strong-acid cation exchangers, into
which were introduced carriers of reducing properties.
Such electron ion exchangers can chemically bind the
dissolved oxygen in the water without any additional
energy consumption. In the 70th years of last century
similar copper-containing electron ion exchangers
demonstrated high efﬁ ciency were used. However, it
should be noted that manufacturing of the latter is not
environmentally safe as copper is one of the heavy
metals whose a permissible content in the reservoirs is
severely rationed, and one of the decay products of used
in the manufacture of EIE reagents is hydrogen sulﬁ de.
The reagents used in ferrous hydroxide EIE
manufacture including iron(II) compounds are much
less harmful to human health and the environment.
Studying the opportunities and conditions for
the realization of the deep combined desalination
and deoxygenation of water using MBF and ferrous
hydroxide EIEs is the purpose of our investigation.
Until recently, a processes of different physical and
chemical nature requiring distinct hardware design were
used for preparation of the feed water for the steam
generators. In our research we applied an installation,
where processes and materials of a similar nature were
implemented in devices of the same type.
The prevailing view of the inability to use the
ferrous hydroxide EIEs for the combined desalination
and deoxygenation of water is based on the fact that the
carrier of the reducing properties, Fe(OH)
in H-cation exchanged water. The idea underlying the
present research is to provide contact of the ferrous
hydroxide EIE with demineralized water with pH close
to neutral. To this end, we mounted laboratory setup