Water relations in germinating seeds

Water relations in germinating seeds Life strategy of plants depends on successful seed germination in the available environment, and sufficient soil water is the most important external factor. Taking into account a broad spectrum of roles played by water in seed viability and its maintenance during germination, the review embraces early germination events in seeds different in their water status. Two seed types are compared, namely orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, in terms of water content in the embryonic axes, vacuole biogenesis, and participation of water channels in membrane water transport. Mature orthodox seeds desiccate to low water content and remain viable during storage, whereas mature recalcitrant seeds are shed while well hydrated but die during desiccation and cannot be stored. In orthodox Vicia faba minor air-dry seeds remaining viable at 8–10% water content in embryonic axes, the vacuoles in hypocotyl are preserved as protein storage vacuoles, then restored to vacuoles in imbibing seeds in the course of protein mobilization. However, in newly produced meristematic root cells, the vacuoles are formed de novo from provacuoles. In recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds, embryonic axes have a water content of 63–64% at shedding and they lack protein storage vacuoles but preserve vacuoles preformed in maturing seeds. Independent of the vacuolar biogenetic patterns, their further trend is similar; they expand and fuse, thus producing an osmotic compartment, which precedes and becomes an obligatory step for the initiation of cell elongation. Prior to this, water moves in imbibing seeds through the membranes by diffusion, although the aquaporins forming water channels are present. In both seed types, water channels are opened and actively participate in water transport only after growth initiation. Aquaporin gene expression and their composition change in broad bean embryonic axes after growth initiation. This is the way how a mass water flow into growing seedling cells is achieved, independent of differences in seed water content and vacuole biogenesis patterns. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Plant Physiology Springer Journals

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Pleiades Publishing
Copyright © 2017 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Life Sciences; Plant Physiology; Plant Sciences
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