High-resolution, reactive Mie scattering laser-sheet visualizations, two-color digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and thermal anemometry measurements in flows generated by equivalent coaxial circular and square jets are presented. Visualization results were obtained for three square, coaxial configurations, and a reference circular coaxial nozzle, at two Reynolds numbers of the outer jet (19,000 and 29,000) and for inner-to-outer jet velocity ratios of 0.15, 0.22, and 0.3. These indicated that the internal unmixed region diminished with decreasing velocity ratio. Strong evidence of unsteady recirculation and back-flow was observed at the end of the core of the inner jet, for the low velocity ratios. Comparisons between circular and square jet configurations indicated considerable mixing enhancement when square nozzles were used. Low-coherence, organized large-scale structure was evident from the visualizations and DPIV measurements near the origin of the inner mixing-region shear layers, and more so in the core region of the near field. These observations were confirmed by velocity spectra, which displayed peaks corresponding to a free shear-layer instability mode in the inner mixing-region shear layers, and a wake-type mode in the core region where the mean flow has a wake-like character. Although some large-scale structure was observed in the outer mixing layer during the visualizations, this was found to be incoherent on the basis of the DPIV measurements and the velocity spectra. It is noted that no axis-switching phenomena were observed in the square nozzle flows examined here. This is attributed to the absence of an organized structure in the outer shear layer, which was initially highly turbulent, and the weakly coherent nature of the organized structure observed in the inner mixing-region near field.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 1, 2001
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