ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 12, pp. 2061−2065. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
The text was submitted by the authors in English.
By the chemical interactions of steam and heavy oil,
named “aquathermolysis”, not only can the viscosity of
heavy oil be reduced but also the quality can be upgraded
slightly . Nowadays, the catalysts could be divided
into two categories: oil-soluble catalysts, water-soluble
catalysts. Oil-soluble catalysts are easily soluble in oil,
so it can reacted with oil fully. However, the construc-
tion process is complex, and it is generally effective to
catalyzed crude oil at high temperature, 250–300°C, on
the other hand, oil-soluble catalysts will cause the metal
ion content increasing in crude oil, damage the quality
of crude oil, and increase the burden on the subsequent
processing. Water-soluble catalysts are easily dissolved
in water, and it can be used in the water injection well
to enter the formation on the practical application, mean
while, the operation process is simple, and it can signiﬁ -
cantly reduce the difﬁ culty of crude oil exploitation. At
the same time, water-soluble catalysts are hardly soluble
in oil, so it could not cause the metal ion content in crude
oil. Therefore, it has the function of protecting the quality
of crude oil remarkably, that is, it has the cleanness .
In our previous work, a series of transition metal coor-
dination complexes was prepared from organic ligand
and transition metal ions, and applied as catalyst in the
aquathermolysis of heavy oil at relatively low temperature
. Herein, we report a new catalyst with new hydrogen
donor for the aquathermolysis of heavy oil.
Petroleum ether, sodium tartaric and FeCl
purchased from Tianjin Kermel Chemical Reagent Co.,
Ltd. (at AR reagent grade) and were used without further
puriﬁ cation. The heavy oil used for evaluations was
Tazhong crude oil with no sand.
Synthesis of the Complexes
The citric -Fe(III) complex was synthesized as shown
in Fig. 1. FeCl
and sodium citric solved in water in
a beaker with the 1 : 1 molar ratio, stirred uniformly
and reﬂ uxed for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to room
temperature for the catalysis.
Viscosity Reduction of Citric-Fe(III) in Catalytic
Aquathermolysis of Heavy Oil at Low Temperature
, Fan Zhang
, Gang Chen
*, Jie Zhang
, Mei Meng
, and Zhifang Zhang
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi’an 710065, China
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yulin University, Yulin 719000, China
Received November 2, 2016
Abstract—A F e(III) coordination complex was synthesized, characterized, and then used in aquathermolysis of
heavy oil as catalyst at relatively low temperature, 180°C. The effects of water amount, catalyst concentration
on aquat hermolysis were investigated in this work. The crude oil before and after aquathermolysis was fully
characterized, and the mechanism of viscosity reduction was discussed in detail. The results show that heavy oil
can undergo aquathermolysis in the present of water and citric-F e(III) complex at low temperature. Besides, the
catalytic aquathermolysis could not only decrease the viscosity of heavy oil, but also remove some heteroatoms,
ﬁ nally make the ﬂ ow properties better and the quality upgraded.