On steep, millimeter-scale, 2D water waves, surface profile, and subsurface velocity field are measured with high-spatio-temporal resolution. This allows resolving surface vorticity, which is captured in the surface boundary layer and compared with its direct computation from interface curvature and velocity. Data are obtained with a combination of high-magnification time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence. The latter is used to resolve the surface profile and serves as a processing mask for the former. PIV processing schemes are compared to optimize accuracy locally, and profilometry data are treated to obtain surface curvature. This diagnostic enables new insights into free-surface dynamic, in particular, wave growth and surface vorticity generation, for flow regimes not studied previously. The technique is demonstrated on a high-speed water jet discharging in quiescent air at a Reynolds number of 4.8 × 104. Shear-layer instability below the surface leads to streamwise traveling waves with wavelength λ ~ 2 mm and steepness $$2\pi a / \lambda \ge 2.0$$ 2 π a / λ ≥ 2.0 , where a is the crest to trough amplitude. Flow structures are resolved at these scales by recording at 16 kHz with a magnification of 4.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 8, 2014
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