ISSN 10683712, Russian Electrical Engineering, 2013, Vol. 84, No. 10, pp. 581–585. © Allerton Press, Inc., 2013.
Original Russian Text © S.G. Voronin, D.A. Kurnosov, A.S. Kul’mukhametova, 2013, published in Elektrotekhnika, 2013, No. 10, pp. 50–54.
Permanentmagnet synchronous motors
(PMSMs) constructed on the basis of permanent
magnet synchronous machines have been widely used
in a variety of electric drives and automatic control
systems. Thus, alongside motors with discrete com
mutation of the stator winding by rotorposition sen
sor (RPS) signals, e.g., installed in Hall sensor gaps,
vectorcontrol engines are increasingly being used.
The development of computational tools of motor
control systems, i.e., microprocessors, power elec
tronics, and information elements in the form of digi
tal angle sensors and encoders, has contributed signif
icantly to this.
In implementing the principles of vector control,
several approaches can be singled out that differ in the
method for determining the actual position of the
rotor relative to the stator [1–4]. All of them were
developed by analogy with vectorcontrol induction
motors, in which the rotorexcitation current is gener
ated by control of statorcircuit currents. As far as this
is concerned, almost all known vectorcontrol
schemes include separate actuating paths of the motor
excitation by the
axes. Use of this control
requires a large amount of computation because of the
necessity of direct and inverse coordinate transforma
tions. In addition, even more computations are
needed to translate the motor model and coordinate
observers into reality [5, 6].
The principal difference of permanentmagnet
rotor machines is that there is no need to form a rotor
excitation current, since it already exists. We can influ
ence the vector magnitude of the stator field current
and its angle relative to the rotor current vector which
can be quite simply measured or monitored and con
trolled. This is sufficient to create the desired proper
ties and characteristics of the SM.
In the case of the vectorcontrol provided that the
rotating electromotive force is sinusoidal the three
phase motor stator winding is energized by the three
phase sinusoidal voltage as in the classical synchro
nous motor. The difference lies only in the fact that
between the vectors of voltage and the EMF
(in the PMSM theory, it is called the switching angle,
while in the theory of synchronous machines it is the
load angle) is given by setting the rotorposition sensor
or the vectorcontrol system. Therefore, in order to
describe the PMSM mechanical characteristics, a
classical equation of the electromagnetic torque of the
synchronous motor (SM) with the implicit poles can
be used. In relative terms, it has the following form 
are relative values of the electromag
netic torque, phase voltage, and rotor speed, respec
are relative and absolute
The nominal voltage and noload speed of the
PMSM can be taken as basic values of voltage and
rotation speed at
). The basic torque is
is the phasewinding resistance.
In the construction of the electrical drive, we are
primarily interested in the type of mechanical charac
teristics of the engine, which can be regarded as (1).
Depending on the purpose of the drive (towline,
u θcos ϑε θsin+()ε–
Vector Control of PermanentMagnet Synchronous Motors
S. G. Voronin
, D. A. Kurnosov
, and A. S. Kul’mukhametova
South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia
Received September 16, 2013
—Schemes and algorithms are considered for vector control of a permanentmagnet synchronous
motor by adjusting the statorfield vector magnitude and its angular misalignment relative to the rotorfield
vector. The proposed algorithms provide a very varied view of motor mechanical characteristics, demonstrate
low sensitivity to the dispersion of engine parameters, use a relatively small amount of computational proce
dures, and make it possible to implement quite easily a variety of static and dynamic drive operating regimes,
including the modes of directcurrent control, start, reverse, and others. Simulation results of the drive oper
ation in static and dynamic regimes are given.
: permanentmagnet synchronous motors, vector control, sensorless control, engine identifier
The original version of this article was revised: A previously
missing affiliation was added.