Vanillin is valuable and popular flavor used in foods and cosmetics. Many bacteria species have the ability to decarboxylate substituted cinnamic acids in order to form vanillin. However, the phenolic biotransformation including vanillin production in a common fungus, the Aspergillus luchuensis, which is used in distilled beverages, has not yet been clarified. This study focused on elucidating the vanillin production due to phenolic biotransformation in A. luchuensis during fermentation. The phenolic metabolites were extracted by a solid phase column and they were determined using on LC/MS and LC/MS/MS in a selective ion mode. As a result, ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid, were detected in the rice koji fermentationed by A. luchuensis and also fermentated with yeast. In addition, the accurate molecular formula of vanillin glucoside (C14H17O8, 313.0927, (M-H)− and its production ions was also determined by HRESI-mass spectrometry. Based on the results including the phenolic metabolites and related genes found in A. luchuensis genome, this study proposed the vanillin production mechanism due to the side chain cleavage of ferulic acid through Coenzyme A (CoA) and feruloyl-CoA hydratase/lyase, to form vanillin and acetyl-COA. In this study, another possible vanillin production pathway also was proposed due to the neutral hexose hydrolysis of vanillin glucoside. The subsequent dehydrogenation of vanillin produced vanillic acid. In addition, vanillin was detected in the distilled alcohol indicating its contribution to the aroma profile of beverages. It has been unknown that the vanillin in the distilled solution is derived from the vanillin produced during rice-koji and/or moromi mash fermentations.
AMB Express – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 13, 2018
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