A 26-year-old HIV-negative male from Ghana was treated for cervical, intrathoracic and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculous hepatitis. Penetration of the thoracic trachea by a mediastinal lymph node had caused bronchomucosal TB. Sputum culture grew M. africanum, sensitive to all first-line antituberculous drugs. Four weeks after the beginning of directly observed treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, the right cervical lymph node increased in size, liquefied and caused a spontaneous fistula. A biopsy of the necrotized lymph node revealed rare acid-fast bacilli with a positive PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. After debridement, vacuum-assisted closure therapy was performed for 6 weeks. Five months after the beginning of antituberculous therapy, a second paradoxical reaction occurred, with painful swelling of two contralateral supraclavicular lymph nodes. Extirpation of one node yielded a positive PCR for M. tuberculosis complex; the culture was negative. Antituberculous treatment was continued, and additional treatment with oral prednisolone 20 mg daily for 1 month tapering over 10 weeks was introduced, resulting in a decrease in lymphadenopathy. Antituberculous treatment was continued for a total of 9 months. The outcome was favorable, no further lymphadenopathy occurred over the following 6 months.
Infection – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 12, 2018
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