USE OF WASTE MATERIALS FROM THE PRODUCTION
OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER FOR PREPARING
V. N. Antsiferov,
T. S. Golodnova,
S. E. Porozova,
and G. R. Sagirova
Translated from Ogneupory i Tekhnicheskaya Keramika, No. 10, pp. 22 – 26, October, 2002.
An aluminum-silicon-chromium powder (ASC) extracted from waste gases in synthetic rubber production is
used as an addition to kaolin-based ceramics, and its effect on the kinetics of sintering, compressive strength,
and phase composition of mullite-corundum and corundum ceramic materials is studied. The strength of ce
ramic materials is mainly determined by the amount and composition of the mullite component. The effect of
mechanochemical activation in an aqueous medium on the physicochemical properties of the mullite-corun
dum materials is studied.
At present, the ever-growing world population and ex-
panding national economies pose serious environmental con-
cerns. The production cycle of most industrial enterprises in-
volves by-products (gases, liquids, or solids) that are most
commonly emitted into the atmosphere. The flame or cata-
lytic afterburning of waste gases is effective only if the waste
gas components are complex compounds capable of decom-
posing into N
, and H
O. For removing particulate con-
taminants, various filtering facilities are required. For exam
ple, high-porosity cellular ceramic materials (HPCMs) have
been employed to good effect as filters for the waste gases of
melting furnaces . Sublimated metal particles on passing
through a filtering material with a three-dimensional mecha
nism of action become deposited on the filter’s surface. Re
usable filters are recovered by dissolving the deposited metal
in acid or alkaline solutions .
For fine filtering of flue gases in the production of mono
mers for synthetic rubber at the Kauchuk Joint-Stock Co.
(Sterlitamak, Russia), high-efficiency filters based on elec
tron-ion technology using gas-permeable precipitation elec
trodes were employed . Among the finely filtered pro
ducts of flue gases, an aluminum-silicon-chromium (ASC)
powder with a particle size not exceeding 4 mm is extracted
that can find application in the production of ceramics .
Using by-products extracted from wastes of the mining,
chemical, and other industries as additions for development
of new ceramic materials provides a way towards resolving
environmental issues as well as towards improving quality
and reducing the cost of ceramics [5 – 7]. Kaolin was used as
the base for a composite aluminosilicate material.
Our goal in this study was to explore effects produced by
the addition of an aluminum-silicon-chromium (ASC) pow-
der on sintering kinetics, strength, and phase composition of
the sintered materials and to optimize the ASC concentration
in ceramic formulations.
Kyshtymskii kaolin (State Standard GOST 21286–75)
and aluminum-silicon-chromium powder, whose concentra
tion in the mixture varied within 20 – 80 wt.%, were used in
The components were mixed in a water medium using a
jasper mortar and pestle. The dried powder was pressed into
pellets using a 10% aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solu
tion added as the plasticizer at a concentration of 4% under a
pressure of 50 MPa. The mechanochemical activation was
carried out using a Sand planetary mill equipped with chalce
dony drums and chalcedony milling bodies; the milling was
done for 1 h at a rotation speed of 150 rpm in aqueous neu
tral (pH = 7), acid (pH = 1), and alkaline (pH = 10) media.
The medium pH was controlled by adding dropwise a hydro
chloric acid solution or an aqueous ammonia solution. The
sintering was carried out in air using a furnace with lantha
num chromite heaters at 1500 – 1530°C. The ceramic phase
composition was studied using a DRON-3M diffractometer
(b-filtered Co radiation). The compressive strength was de
termined using a 2054-R testing machine at a strain rate of
20 mm/min. Microsoft Excel was used to determine the con
fidence interval for n = 0.95.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 43, Nos. 9 – 10, 2002
1083-4877/02/0910-0299$27.00 © 2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation
Research Center for Powder Materials Science, Perm, Russia;
PIK Research and Development Company, Sterlitamak, Russia.