USE OF TECHNOGENIC FORMATIONS
IN THE PRODUCTION OF UNFIRED REFRACTORY COMPOSITES
V. Z. Abdrakhimov,
A. I. Khlystov,
and V. K. Semenychev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 53 – 59, June 2010.
Original article submitted March 19, 2010.
Use of inorganic technogenic raw material in composites with phosphate binders makes it possible to prepare
a whole set of materials for special purposes: heat-resistant concretes and solutions, liquid phosphate binders,
etc. From an ecological point of view these materials may be in demand in the same enterprises where they are
formed, and this is a significant step on the path to waste-free technology.
Keywords: technogenic formations, unfired refractories, pyrite cinder, chemical composition, magnetite,
haematite, corundum, porous structure, aluminum iron phosphate binder, high-alumina wastes.
In 1972 Denis Meadows, Donella, Meadows and Jurgen
Randers presented to the Club of Rome their famous paper
“Growth limits,” i.e. the scenario of social and economic as-
sessment of humanity in the case maintenance of observed
trends. The scenario was unfortunate: with any specific val-
ues of the parameters in question our civilization was waiting
for a crash. Two main mechanisms led to this: exhaustion of
natural resources and an uncontrollable increase in waste.
The authors of the paper had in view primarily industrial dis
charges to the atmosphere and water, since the role of solid
domestic waste is relatively small.
Recovery and processing of natural mineral raw materi
als is connected with formation of a considerable amount of
different industrial wastes, whose accumulation leads to
worsening of the ecological situation within regions. One as
pect of solving this important problem is use of technogenic
raw material in building materials.
In building materials science the question of using waste
products receives considerable attention since the branch of
building materials exhibits unlimited potential for most com
plete use of waste materials. This is explained by the large
scale of the building complex, its material consumption and
range of objects. Wastes in this field are close in composition
and properties to natural raw material, used for building ma-
terial production . A considerable part of wastes may be
used as the basic raw material or adjustment components in
manufacturing materials for general building and special
One the important ecological problems is creation of
waste-free technology for producing materials that exhibit
physicothermal properties, for lining heating units , that as
is well known operate under complex physicochemical con
ditions. Recently principles have been developed for prepar
ing unfired refractory composites (heat-resistant mortars,
concretes, ramming mixes) with increased service life as a
lining material. As applied to heat-resistant concrete, relating
to unfired multicomponent composites, use of these princi
ples opens up broad possibilities for creating new lining ma
terials with prescribed properties.
Of the whole collection of mineral binder substances
(portland and clay cements, water glass and lump silicate)
the greatest chemical activity to wards oxides and hydrox
ides from which the majority of industrial wastes consist, is
exhibited by phosphate binders. According to chemical com
position for any technogenic inorganic product it is possible
to determine its activity coefficient and to predict the process
of phosphate binding, i.e. to estimate conditions for using
some raw material components for synthesizing heat-resis
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 51, No. 3, 2010
1083-4877/10/5103-0212 © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Samara Academy of State and Municipal Government, Samara,
Samara State Architectural Building University, Samara, Russia.