REFRACTORIES IN HEAT UNITS
USE OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS
IN CASTING AND INTERMEDIATE LADLES
L. V. Mironova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.9,pp.3–5,September, 2006.
Original article submitted April 25, 2006.
The experience in using refractories in steel-casting and intermediate ladles at the open-hearth plant of the
Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works is described.
The Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works uses
casting ladles of capacity 175 tons for transporting and cast-
ing steel. The plant park includes 24 ladles. The steel produc-
tion volume in the open-hearth plant in 2005 was equal to
1.3 million tons.
Until 2004, the lining for ladles of the open-hearth plant
was made of mullite-silica materials. The service life of such
a lining on average lasts 20 heats. More efficient refractories
were needed for ladle lining after the introduction of non-fur-
nace treatment of steel on the steel-refining unit and on the
furnace-ladle plant and after starting the machine for contin
uous billet casting.
The development of an optimal lining scheme for casting
ladles of the open-hearth plant relied on the positive experi
ence of using periclase-carbon lining in casting ladles of the
oxygen-converter plant. The lining of ladles used at the oxy
gen-converter plant in 2004 withstood 107.9 heats with the
number of hot repairs equal to 1.35. The open-hearth plant
accepted the lining scheme used at the oxygen-converter
plant as the basis:
— the walls are made of periclase-carbon refractory of
grade PUPK-S2 of thickness 100 m using a circular layout
— the slag belt is made of refractory PUPK-Sh2 with an
increased content of carbon and an antioxidant;
— the working lining of the ladle bottom is made of re-
fractory PUPK-D11 of thickness 300 mm;
— the clearance between the bottom brickwork and the
working lining of the walls is sealed by a ramming mixture
of grade MMLK-80;
— the joints between the walls and the bottom are pro
tected by three rows of protective rings.
The lining is made of products with good service proper
ties, both domestic and imported ones. The quality parame
ters of ladle refractories produced at the magnesian-dolomite
refractory division of the Ogneupor JSC are listed in Table 1;
ladle refractories produced by other companies have a high
content of magnesium oxide (MgO > 90%) and low porosity
(1.6 – 2.7%).
The brickwork joints are filled by periclase marl of grade
MPF, and the reinforcement of the walls and the bottom is
made of mullite-silica refractory MKRU-45; the multi-slot
bottom-blowing blocks are imported. All casting ladles are
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 5, 2006
1083-4877/06/4705-0261 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia.
TABLE 1. Quality Parameters of Ladle Parts Produced by Ogneupor JSC
Grade Open porosity, %
Weight part, %
PUPK-S (walls) 2.6 3.04 50.5 96.0 0.32 10.4
PUPK-Sh (slag belt) 2.5 2.97 47.9 91.2 5.00 12.8
PUPK-D (bottom) 3.4 3.06 54.6 96.3 0.29 8.4