USE OF QUARTZ AND QUARTZ-FELDSPAR SANDS
IN MOLDING MIXES FOR CASTING IRON
A. S. Zavertkin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.12,pp.3–6,December, 2013.
Original article submitted April 19, 2013.
Use of quartz and quartz-feldspar sands for iron casting molds and rods is studied. A requirement is substanti
ated for their use as molding materials for preparing iron castings weighing up to 1500 kg and the casings of
drying cylinders weighing up to 36 tons. It is concluded that it is preferable to use Gusarov, Karelian, and
Finnish sands over other quartz sands. Portland cement, clay, water glass, graphite, and schungite, are used as
well as sands. Carbon-containing materials are introduced into a mix composition in order to improve mold
ing, physicomechanical, and anti-pickup properties. A mixture recipe, and metal melting and pouring technol
ogy are developed and proposed. In order to manufacture rods of sand-cement mixes in preparing castings of
drying cylinder casings for papermaking machines it is necessary to use sand with a grain size of 0.5 – 1.0 mm
with a clay component content of not more than 0.6%.
Keywords: quartz and quartz-feldspar sands, molding mixes, melting, cast iron, pouring, drying cylinders.
In view of increased specifications for casting quality the
problem of providing casting production with high quality
sands remains important. High specifications are laid down
for casting drying cylinders with respect to surface rough
ness, strength, and wear resistance. The cylinder casings are
cast from high-alloy cast iron, with respect to mechanical
properties close to cast steel, gray iron with lamellar graph
ite, alloyed with Cr, Ni, Mo, Cu, or high-strength cast iron
with spheroidal graphite.
The AO Petrozavodskmash Casting Plant is experiencing
a shortage of sands with a grain size of 0.6 – 0.8 mm used in
preparing drying cylinders. In order to resolve this problem
the plant has repeatedly taken delivery of molding sand from
the firm Valmet in Finland, and also from the Gusarov de
posit in the Ukraine. The aim of this work is to reveal the
possibility of replacing imported molding sand by Karelian
Scientific and technical progress impels casters and met
allurgists to increase specifications for molding material
quality. Within the composition of promising molding sands
and anti-pickup coatings highly conditioned materials are
mainly recommended and used: enriched quartz sands, dusty
quartz, zircon, bentonite, graphite, corundum, etc. [1 – 5].
Due to increased demand for these materials they become
scarcer. Often molding materials imported in railway wagons
are contaminated with residues of preceding charges and ma
terials, and this worsens sand quality. Thus, use of local
molding sands is important. In the opinion of Insley  cast
ing molds are associated with unfired ceramics or uncalcined
refractory. These materials operate at high temperature and
are subject to action of molten metal during pouring of cast
iron or other alloys. Associated quartz mineral in quartz
sands is normally harmful as a result of worsening refractory
properties of molds and rods prepared from these materials.
Grain size composition of sands affects mix processing
properties. For plate and conveyor casting the AO Petroza
vodskmash Casting Plant uses sand from the Novinsk
and Strugo-Krasnensk quarries, located in the north west of
In this work the grain size, chemical and mineral compo
sition of molding sands produced by AO Petrozavodskmash
and sands from the territory of the Karelian Republic are
studied in order to explain the dependence of anti-pickup and
refractory properties on grain shape, size, and also on chemi
cal and mineral composition. The amount of argillaceous
component in sands was determined in a model 021 instru
ment, and screen analysis was carried in a model 028m in
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 54, No. 6, March, 2014
1083-4877/14/05406-0438 © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGBUN Institute of Geology of KarTsN of the Russian Academy
of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, Karelian Republic, Russia.