1070-4272/05/7810-1615 + 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1615!1619. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 10, 2005,
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Turaev.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Use of Ion-Exchange Membranes in Chemical Power Cells
D. Yu. Turaev
Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia
Received March 28, 2005
Abstract-A chemical power cell is suggested, in which the positive and negative electrodes are placed each
in its own electrolyte. This makes it possible to obtain the highest absolute value of the electrode potential of
each electrode. The electromotive force and the maximum theoretical specific energy are calculated for
an acid-alkaline-salt battery of the zinc-dioxide3lead system.
Chemical power cells employing aqueous electro-
lyte solutions can be divided into three groups: with
salt, acid, and alkaline electrolytes. The active pastes
of the positive and negative electrodes are spatially
separated with a porous separator.
The active pastes are also separated with ion-ex-
change membranes . An electrochemical cell  is
a variant of an air!zinc system, with a partition per-
meable to only OH
ions and water molec-
ules. The negative Zn electrode is placed in an acid
electrolyte, and the positive electrode, in KOH.
The charging and discharge voltages are 1.8 and 1.2!
1.3 V, respectively.
The possibility of using bipolar ion-exchange mem-
branes to produce electric power by back electro-
dialysis was demonstrated in . The electric power
is generated by feeding HCl and NaOH solutions into
adjacent chambers. An acid (alkali) solution is in con-
tact with the cationic (anionic) side of a bipolar ion-
exchange membrane. Nickel, on which water decom-
poses in discharge of the power cell through an active
load, is used as a material of the anode and cathode.
At a zero load current, the algebraic sum of the elec-
trode and membrane potentials of the cationite and
anionite membranes is directed against the sum of
membrane potentials of MB-24 bipolar membranes.
Highly important is the chemical resistance of
an ion-exchange membrane serving to separate elec-
trolytes with a strongly oxidizing power. For example,
a sulfonate-polysulfocarbonate cation-exchange mem-
brane has been developed for separation of two elec-
trolytes and use in batteries containing a strong oxi-
dizing electrolyte, e.g., for a zinc!ferrocyanide bat-
The parameters of perfluorinated cation-exchange
membranes of foreign and domestic manufacture were
reported in .
An anion-exchange ion-selective membrane has
been used in a fuel cell employing an aqueous acid
solution of chromium(II) chloride as a reducing agent,
and an acid solution of iron(III) chloride as an oxi-
dizing agent .
Thus, use of ion-exchange membranes makes it
possible to obtain various chemical power cells, in-
cluding fuel cells.
If ion-exchange membranes that favor motion of
only a single kind of ions are used to separate active
pastes, chemical power cells can be designed taking
into account the operation of each of the half-cells.
Most of half-cells containing an oxidizing or reduc-
ing agent lie outside the thermodynamic stability re-
gion of H
O, equal to 1.23 V (Purbet diagram for
water) , specified by two boundary equations de-
rived using the Nernst equation for the reactions
+ 77 ln77 = 30.059pH,
+ 77 ln 777
(2a)= 1.23 3 0.059pH.