USE OF ECONOMIC MINERAL HYDRAULIC MINING TECHNOLOGY
FOR EXPANDING THE RAW MATERIAL BASE FOR REFRACTORY
N. G. Valiev,
S. Ya. Davydov,
R. A. Apakashev,
and D. I. Simisinov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 28 – 32, November, 2016.
Original article submitted September 22, 2016.
The problem is considered of including in the raw material base for manufacturing the main refractory prod
ucts hydraulically mined economic minerals (quartzite, sandstone, refractory clay, kaolin, bauxite, sillimanite,
serpentinite, bischofite, etc.). It is noted that the specific nature of hydraulic mining gives rise to the possibility
of comprehensive use of natural raw material components and simplified preliminary preparation technology
for use within the composition of refractory objects. A mechanized hydraulic device is proposed for mining
economic minerals, effective for enriching and classifying sand and clay mixtures in flooded sand, and sand
and gravel deposits.
Keywords: refractories, expansion of raw material base, economic minerals, comprehensive use, hydraulic
borehole mining (HBM), device for borehole hydraulic mining.
Currently the main part of industrial refractories is pro-
duced from natural raw material. In order to manufacture re-
fractory objects economic minerals are used differing with
respect to chemical composition and physicomechanical
condition. Depending on the form of starting raw material
the following main refractories are prepared: silica (dinas
and quartz) from quartzite, quartz-like sandstones, and
quartz sand; alumosilicate produced from refractory clay,
primary and secondary kaolin, bauxite, sillimanite, disthene,
and staurolite; magnesia materials from talcomagnesite, ser
pentinite, kaolin-magnesium salt, and also bischofite.
Natural refractory raw material in the majority of cases is
not ready for direct use. Sandstones used for preparing silica
refractories are sedimentary rocks and consist of quartz ce
mented with argillaceous, silica, or lime substance. In com
position refractory clays are polymineral rocks, within which
a leading role is played by quartz, kaolin, mica, and carbon
ates. Therefore during preparation of natural raw material for
use in refractory production it is necessary to separate un
used components and contaminants. Raw material is cleaned,
enriched, classified, etc. Natural reserves of readily accessi
ble high quality refractory raw material are currently close to
exhaustion, and simultaneously there is a reduction in grade
of recovered raw material, mining and geological conditions
are complicated for developing deposits, and as a conse-
quence there is an increase in mining cost.
The aim of this work is inclusion in the raw material base
for production of the main refractory products of economic
mineral hydraulic mining (quartzite, sandstone, refractory
clay, kaolin, bauxite, silliminite, serpentinite, bischofite,
etc.). The specific nature of the hydraulic mining process
gives rise to a possibility of combining use of components of
natural raw material and simplification of technology for its
preliminary preparation for introduction into the composition
of refractory objects.
Hydraulic mining of economic minerals is used for
mechanization of mining work when all or part of the pro
duction process are carried out due to the energy of high-
speed water flow. The main production processes during hy
draulic mechanization of open mining are washing out, trans
portation, and storage of rock in a hydraulic mine dump.
During mining of economic mineral by a hydromechanized
method water may also be used for economic mineral enrich
ment . Processes of washing, hydraulic transport, and stor
age of rock in a dump proceed continuously, and this is the
basic difference of the hydraulic method for developing eco
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 57, No. 6, March, 2017
1083-4877/17/05706-0595 © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGBOU VO Ural State Mining University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.