PRODUCTION AND EQUIPMENT
USE OF DISCRETE CARBON FIBERS IN REFRACTORY MATERIALS
S. A. Podkopaev,
E. B. Korsukov,
Yu. A. Balakhonov,
I. D. Kashcheev,
K. G. Zemlyanoi,
and S. A. Pomortsev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 24 – 27, November, 2016.
Original article submitted September 7, 2016.
Possibilities are considered for using discrete carbon fibers as a reinforcing element within the structure of
carbon-containing refractories. Results of laboratory and pilot plant tests are provided.
Keywords: discrete carbon fibers, reinforcement, periclase-carbon refractories, resistance.
Micro-reinforcement of the matrices of objects and mate-
rials with fibers is considered as a method of creating struc-
tures capable of withstanding prolonged bending and tensile
stresses, and dynamic loads effectively resisting crack for-
mation both with mechanical and thermal loads. World expe-
rience confirms that a promising area in industry of structural
and functional materials is use of objects for various pur-
poses micro-reinforced with fibers. For such indices as ten-
sile and shear strength, impact and fatigue strength, crack re-
sistance, fracture toughness, frost resistance, water perme
ability, and a number of others, reinforced materials surpass
by several factors traditional materials and this gives them
high efficiency in use as structural and functional materials
[1 – 12].
Reinforcement of a matrix makes it possible to consider
able extent to influence the main disadvantages of nonmetal
lic materials, i.e., low strength in tension and bending, brit
tleness, and also an improved capacity to withstand alternat
ing sign (inertial) action. Reinforcement with application of
different fibers changes the behavior directly of cement or
ceramic stone as a component of the structure, which makes
it possible to create the required reserve of strength, and re
tain structural integrity even after development of whisker
cracks [13 – 15].
In addition, as a result of combining fiber micro-rein-
forcement and a matrix of artificial stone there is formation
of an additional set of composite properties, which an iso-
lated component does not exhibit. In particular, presence of
interfaces between reinforcing elements and matrix consider-
ably increase material crack resistance. Thus, within com-
posites and increase in static strength leads not to a reduc-
tion, but to an increase in fracture toughness properties and
shrinkage deformation. Volumetric micro-reinforcement of
materials also makes it possible to reduce significantly the
overall weight of an object due to increasing the cross sec
tion with unchanged strength indices, which facilitates a sav
ing of raw materials and energy and labor resources. Within
liquid mineral binder, based on nonmetallic materials, pres
ence of fiber reinforcement filler reduces plastic shrinkage,
and improves water retaining capacity due to creating three
dimensional grid within a mixture. The toughness of mi
cro-reinforced material changes the failure mechanism,
which does not occur suddenly as in the normal case.
In refractory materials technology there are two areas for
the use of fibers: reinforcement with polypropylene and/or
metal fibers (threads) of refractory low-cement concretes and
objects made from them, and fiber reinforcing materials
(eco-wool, basalt wool, kaolin fiber) of torcrete-concrete for
the working layer of a tundish. In addition, experiments have
shown that addition of reinforcing fibers may both improve
physicochemical properties and increase the life of refractory
objects, in particular carbon-containing objects [12, 16 – 19].
Carbon-containing (periclase-carbon) refractories have
been introduced extensively in the last fifteen years into steel
smelting production, which has made it possible to increase
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 57, No. 6, March, 2017
1083-4877/17/05706-0591 © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York
OOO Carbon and Composite Materials Plant, Chelyabinsk, Rus
FGAOU VO Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
OOO Ogneupor, Magnitogorsk, Russia.