Use of Cationic Agents for Fixing Coloration of Textile Materials
O. I. Odintsova, M. N. Krotova, and B. N. Mel’nikov
Ivanovo State University of Chemical Technology, Ivanovo, Russia
Received April 9, 2008
Abstract―Ways to increase the degree of utilization of active dyes, enhance the economic and environmental
efficiency of coloration, and improve the quality parameters of fabric coloration and tints are considered. The
theoretical and applied aspects of fixing coloration of textile materials colored with active dyes by using new
alkylamine derivatives in the form of cationic polyelectrolytes and surfactants are studied.
ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 3, pp. 461–465. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text © O.I. Odintsova, M.N. Krotova, B.N. Mel’nikov, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 3, pp. 467–471.
Active dyes, along with pigments, are still the most
widely used in the textile industry. However, along
with indubitable advantages, application of active dyes
gives rise to environmental problems associated with
the presence of a certain amount of the unfixed dye in
the discharged wash waters. Furthermore, the economic
efficiency of the process is impaired by low degree of
fixation of such dyes on textile materials (usually 60–
80%). The presence of the hydrolyzed form of an
active dye significantly affects the fastness character-
istics of colored and especially printed fabrics and
deteriorates the aesthetic characteristics of the textile
coloration [1, 2].
To solve the existing problems and enhance the
resistance of fabric coloration to physicochemical
actions, two groups of substances can be used:
substances that efficiently remove the hydrolyzed dye
from the fabric (dye transfer inhibitors) and substances
strongly fixing the hydrolyzed dye in the fiber
(coloration fixers) [3, 4].
The use of fixing agents is more promising from the
viewpoint of attaining high quality of textile materials
and making the fabric dyeing and printing envi-
ronmentally clean and economically feasible [5–7].
In this study we examined the interaction of a wide
range of alkylamine derivatives with hydrolyzed active
dyes of various chemical structures.
The hydrolyzed form of the dye was prepared by
adding 30% acetic acid (to pH 6–7) to a solution of the
following composition (g l
): active dye 20, NaOH
10; liquor ratio 20.
A preliminarily weighed specimen of cotton fabric
(type of merchandise 262) was placed in the solution
prepared, and the textile material was impregnated for
20 s. The specimen was squeezed on a laboratory
padding machine, dried in air, and treated with
solutions of various cationic compounds: product of
the initial condensation of dicyandiamide with
formaldehyde (DTsU), polydiallyldimethylammonium
chloride (VPK-402), poly(epichlorohydrin–dimethyl-
amine) (Kaustamin-15), alkyldimethylbenzylammonium
chlorides (Katapav etc.), for various times at various
temperatures . After that, the amounts of the dye
desorbed to the solution and retained on the textile
material after the treatment were evaluated. The
characteristics of the main cationic agents used in this
study are given in Table 1.
The performance of fixing agents was evaluated by
the degree of dye desorption, degree of its fixation on the
fiber, and color characteristics of the treated specimens.
The dyeing solutions were analyzed for the
presence of the active and hydrolyzed forms of the dye
by paper chromatography. The dye forms were sepa-
rated on chromatographic paper (grade S) in ascending
solvent flow for 24 h. The dimethylformamide–butan-
ol–water system (3 : 11 : 11) was used as eluent.
From the solution of the dye (hydrolyzed and
nonhydrolyzed), we took samples with a micropipet
and placed them on the start line of chromatographic
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