USE OF A CONTINUOUS FURNACE WITH A WALKING BEAM
LINED WITH PRODUCTS MADE OF REFRACTORY CERAMIC
OF GRADE KMTs
B. L. Krasnyi,
V. P. Tarasovskii,
I. N. Palii,
A. B. Krasnyi,
D. A. Kalinin,
and Yu. D. Kruglyi
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.10,pp.5–7,October, 2011.
Original article submitted May 27, 2011.
Unit production costs can be reduced by using highly efficient new materials created using the latest technolo
gies. This article describes a method for obtaining products made of refractory ceramic KMTs. The article
presents results from a study of the decomposition of zircon at different temperatures and results from com
mercial trials of the new products on the walking beam of continuous walking-beam furnaces.
Keywords: refractory ceramic, zircon, furnace, walking beam, wear resistance, corrosion resistance.
While heating furnaces are in integral part of the technol-
ogy used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, they are also
widely used in other sectors of industry: machine-building,
armaments production, power engineering, etc. . The most
problematic part of the design of heating furnaces is the roof.
The roof is subject to rapid destruction due to several factors:
abrasive wear, the aggressiveness of melts of iron oxides,
and temperature gradients. One of the most important factors
that determines the length of the period between repairs to
heating furnaces is the destructive effect that aggressive iron
oxides formed as semifinished products are moved through
the furnace has on the lining of the roof. The rate of oxida
tion of iron increases roughly tenfold over the temperature
range from 850 to 1250°C. Iron undergoes oxidation even
more rapidly at higher temperatures, and the scale that is
formed becomes soft and flows onto the roof.
The scale formed on the surface of steel semifinished
products may consist of iron oxides with different degrees of
, FeO). The extent to which the scale
interacts with products made of refractory materials depend
on the chemical nature of the refractories used to make those
The mechanism responsible for the destruction of the
refractories can be described by the following scheme. At
1200 – 1300°C, metal undergoes intensive oxidation and the
resulting oxides actively react with most refractories. The
iron oxides that are formed penetrate the pores of the refrac-
tory, which creates stresses in the refractory product and
leads to its fracture. In addition, the scale that is formed on
the surface of the refractory fuses with the lining and forms
crusts (projections) on the surface of the hearth. These crusts
interfere with the movement of the semifinished products
through the furnace. Periodic cleaning of scale from the
hearth is arduous manual labor that cannot be mechanized.
Thus, the problem of improving the wear resistance of the
lining and reducing its interaction with scale is of primary
importance for the metallurgical operation being discussed.
The above problems have been encountered in the use of
a continuous walking-beam furnace at the Oskol’sk Electro
metallurgical Combine (OEMK).
Section-rolling shop No. 2 at the OEMK includes two
continuous walking-beam heating furnaces with a capacity
of 120 tons of metal per hour. These furnaces are used to heat
11-m-long 170 ´ 170 mm semifinished products made of
medium-carbon steels, spring steels, bearing steels, and rein
forcement-grade (silicon and manganese) steels.
The hearth of the continuous furnaces is lined with slabs
made of refractory concrete and containing 46 mass %
. Crusts were formed on the surface of the refractory
concrete blocks during their service. The crusts can only be
removed by mechanical means and the furnace must be shut
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 5, January, 2012
1083-4877/12/05205-0311 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
From materials of the International Conference of Refractory
Specialists and Metallurgists (March 31 – April 1, 2011, Moscow).
Bakor Scientific-Technical Center, Shcherbinka, Moscow region,
Oskol’skii Electrometallurgical Combine, Staryi Oskol, Belgorod