J. Membrane Biol. 212, 69–70 (2006) DOI: 10.1007/s00232-006-0866-8 Thematic Issue Foreword Otto Fro¨ hlich Department of Physiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA Accepted: 12 September 2006 When Friedrich Wohler discovered in 1828 that he urea is supposed to enter or leave a cell, either rapidly could convert the inorganic compound ammonium or against its concentration gradient, it requires a cyanate into the organic compound urea, he opened up transport protein that mediates this process. Nature the ﬁeld of organic chemistry. Until then, urea was had to invent means to move it across the bilayers, be it known only as a natural compound, isolated from for cellular export or for import. The contributions to urine, which apparently required the kidney for its this volume elaborate on the diﬀerent transport path- formation. Of course, we now know that urea is pro- ways that have evolved. Even more, they show how duced in the liver, and that happens by an enzymatic diﬀerent organisms make use of urea in intricate ways mechanism quite distinct from how urea is produced that go beyond the scope of dealing with merely dis- industrially. However, the overall result is the same for posing
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 30, 2007
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