Archives of Virology
Unveiling the complete genome sequence of clerodendrum chlorotic
spot virus, a putative dichorhavirus infecting ornamental plants
Pedro Luis Ramos‑González
· Camila Chabi‑Jesus
· Alexander Banguela‑Castillo
· Aline Daniele Tassi
Mariane da Costa Rodrigues
· Elliot Watanabe Kitajima
· Ricardo Harakava
· Juliana Freitas‑Astúa
Received: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018
The genus Dichorhavirus includes plant-infecting rhabdoviruses with bisegmented genomes that are horizontally transmitted
by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. The complete genome sequences of three isolates of the putative dichorhavirus
clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus were determined using next-generation sequencing (Illumina) and traditional RT-PCR.
Their genome organization, sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationship to other viruses, and transmissibility by Brev-
ipalpus yothersi mites support the assignment of these viruses to a new species of dichorhavirus, as suggested previously.
New data are discussed stressing the reliability of the current rules for species demarcation and taxonomic status criteria
within the genus Dichorhavirus.
Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV) is considered
a tentative member of the genus Dichorhavirus (family
Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales) . Infection with
this virus causes a non-systemic disease that is recurrently
detected in several ornamental plants growing in urban and
private gardens of the Central, Southern, and Southeastern
regions in Brazil . Leaves of aﬀected plants show chlo-
rotic spots that sometimes have a necrotic central area, and
the ﬂower petals occasionally contain brownish blotches.
In C1CSV-infected cells, rod-shaped viral particles (40 ×
100–110 nm) are found in nuclear electron-lucent inclusions
called viroplasms, and also adjacent to the membranous
systems of both the nuclear envelope and the endoplasmic
reticulum [2, 3].
ClCSV is naturally transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis
sensu lato mites of the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipal-
pidae) . In addition to plants of the genus Clerodendrum,
family Lamiaceae, this virus can also naturally or experi-
mentally infect ornamentals and weeds of at least twelve
other families . ClCSV can be mechanically propagated
to a selected group of experimental hosts, and in some of
them, the infection becomes systemic when plants are kept
at 28-29°C .
The genus Dichorhavirus includes viruses of the species
Orchid ﬂeck dichorhavirus and Coﬀee ringspot dichorhavi-
rus [4, 5] as well as three other tentative, not yet assigned
members: citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) , citrus chlo-
rotic spot virus (CiCSV) , and ClCSV [1, 8]. Like other
plant rhabdovirids, dichorhaviruses have a genome consist-
ing of negative-sense (-) single-stranded (ss) RNA molecules
that encode six proteins known as the nucleocapsid protein
(gene N/ ORF1), phosphoprotein (gene P/ ORF2), move-
ment protein (gene MP/ ORF3), matrix protein (gene M/
ORF4), glycoprotein (gene G/ ORF5), and RNA-dependent
RNA polymerase (gene L/ ORF6) . Unlike the majority of
rhabdoviruses, the rod-shaped particles of dichorhaviruses,
although frequently appear to be associated with cellular
membranes, seem to be non-enveloped [1, 9]. Moreover,
their genomes are split and organized into two RNA mol-
ecules of approximately 6-7 kb [1, 9].
Handling Editor: Stephen John Wylie.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (https ://doi.org/10.1007/s0070 5-018-3857-z) contains
supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
* Juliana Freitas-Astúa
Lab. Bioquímica Fitopatológica, Instituto Biológico,
São Paulo, SP 04014-002, Brazil
Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz,
Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900, Brazil
Universidade Anhembi Morumbi/UAM, São Paulo,
SP 03164-000, Brazil
Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas,
BA 44380-000, Brazil