We develop a hybrid unsteady-flow simulation technique combining direct numerical simulation (DNS) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and demonstrate its capabilities by investigating flows past an airfoil. We rectify instantaneous PTV velocity fields in a least-squares sense so that they satisfy the equation of continuity, and feed them to the DNS by equating the computational time step with the frame rate of the time-resolved PTV system. As a result, we can reconstruct unsteady velocity fields that satisfy the governing equations based on experimental data, with the resolution comparable to numerical simulation. In addition, unsteady pressure distribution can be solved simultaneously. In this study, particle velocities are acquired on a laser-light sheet in a water tunnel, and unsteady flow fields are reconstructed with the hybrid algorithm solving the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations in two dimensions. By performing the hybrid simulation, we investigate nominally two-dimensional flows past the NACA0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. In part 1, we introduce the algorithm of the proposed technique and discuss the characteristics of hybrid velocity fields. In particular, we focus on a vortex shedding phenomenon under a deep stall condition (α = 15°) at Reynolds numbers of Re = 1000 and 1300, and compare the hybrid velocity fields with those computed with two-dimensional DNS. In part 2, the extension to higher Reynolds numbers is considered. The accuracy of the hybrid simulation is evaluated by comparing with independent experimental results at various angles of attack and Reynolds numbers up to Re = 104. The capabilities of the hybrid simulation are also compared with two-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) solutions in part 2. In the first part of these twin papers, we demonstrate that the hybrid velocity field approaches the PTV velocity field over time. We find that intensive alternate vortex shedding past the airfoil, which is predicted by the two-dimensional DNS, is substantially suppressed in the hybrid simulation and the resultant flow field is similar to the PTV velocity field, which is projection of the three-dimensional velocity field on the streamwise plane. We attempt to identify the motion that originates three-dimensional flow patterns by highlighting the deviation of the PTV velocity field from the two-dimensional governing equations at each snapshot. The results indicate that the intensive spots of the deviation appear in the regions in which three-dimensional instabilities are induced in the shear layer separated from the pressure side.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 5, 2009
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