Parthenogenesis is usually recognized as the most accepted mechanism of cloning, i.e., reproduction without genetic recombination. Transfer from bisexual to parthenogenetic propagation causes the appearance of all-female populations, races, and species. It was ascertained in natural populations of numerous of reptile and insect species. Clonal and hemiclonal species of fishes and amphibians propagate by means of gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. Less known are instances of androgenesis found in some insects and mollusks. In this case offspring develops only under control of male genes supplied by spermatozoa. Mother’s genes included into the egg nucleus have to be entirely lost. Androgenesis may be called mirroring of parthenogenesis.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 6, 2009
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