Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major disease that threatens human health. With the progression of CKD, the risk of cardiovascular death increases, which is associated with the elevated levels of uremic toxins (UTs). Representative toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are involed in CKD progression and cardiovascular events inseparable from the key role of endothelial dysfunction. The therapeutic strategies of UTs are aimed at signaling pathways that target the levels and damage of toxins in modern medicine. There is a certain relevance between toxins and "turbid toxin" in the theory of Chinese medicine (CM). CM treatments have been demonstrated to reduce the damage of gut-derived toxins to the heart, kidney and blood vessels. Modern medicine still lacks evidence-based therapies, so it is necessary to explore the treatments of CM.
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine – Springer Journals
Published: May 11, 2018
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