We measured ultraweak emissions of the Xenopus laevis eggs and embryos during normal development and under the influence of stress factors in a spectral range of 250 to 800 nm using a photomultiplier. The registered emissions were analyzed by several basic characteristics: mean intensity, histograms, kurtosis, linear trends, and Fourier spectra. We followed relationships between these parameters and developmental stage, as well as the number of individuals in optic contact with each other. The ultraweak emissions did not differ from the background at all developmental stages according to the mean intensity. But Fourier analysis revealed the reliable presence of a number of spectral lines of ultraweak emission, predominantly in the range of 10−2–50 Hz, in the embryos at developmental stages 2 to 11. The intensity of ultraweak emissions reliably decreased within the first 10 min after egg activation and fertilization, as well as in the case of optic interaction between groups of embryos. Sharp cooling, increase in osmotic medium pressure, and transfer in a Ca2+ and Mg2+-free medium induced a short term (∼1–5 min) increase in the mean intensity of ultraweak emission. We studied specific features of ultraweak emissions from different parts of the embryo. The intensity of emission from the animal part of early blastula exceeded those from the vegetal area and entire embryo. Separated fragments of the lateral ectoderm at the neurula stage had higher mean intensities of ultraweak emission than intact embryos at the same developmental stages.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 2, 2007
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera