This paper addresses morphogenetic processes and cell differentiation during embryogenesis of the brittle star Amphipholis kochii at the ultrastructural level. The radial cleavage is not strictly determined. Embryos are covered with a thick hyaline envelope and contain numerous yolk granules and small lipid drops. Blastulae feature a thick blastoderm with extensive intercellular cavities, which are retained in the crest epithelium of late gastrulae. Embryonic cells have single cilia with long cross-striated rootlets associated with the Golgi apparatus. Depolarized cells of the primary mesenchyme with a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum differentiate into sclerenchyme syncytium. Gastrulation occurs by invagination. Secondary mesenchymal cells emigrate from the archenteron tip to differentiate into amebocytes, which contain a well-developed Golgi apparatus and numerous mitochondria. The endoderm is formed of cubic cells with numerous yolk granules and rare microvilli. Flattened cells of the dorsal and ventral ectoderm contain a small amount of yolk. Yolk utilization during embryogenesis occurs by intracellular lysosomal digestion with selective exocytosis of toposomes.
Russian Journal of Marine Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 13, 2005
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