Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from brown alga
Fucus evanescens. Structure and biological activity of the new fucoidan
Andrey B. Hmelkov
Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva
Natalia M. Shevchenko
Anton B. Rasin
Svetlana P. Ermakova
Received: 1 August 2017 /Revised and accepted: 13 November 2017 /Published online: 6 December 2017
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017
The application of an ultrasound-assisted extraction method, combined with ion-exchange chromatography, has allowed sepa-
ration of the total fucoidan fraction (F1) from the brown alga Fucus evanescens into two fractions, F2 and F3, in the ratio 1:0.2.
The traditionally extracted F1 differs from F3 only by the acetate groups at C3 being somewhat predominant. F2 is described as
having acetate groups located chaotically, and contains galactose and xylose residues, in addition to fucose. F3 consists of fucose
residues acetylated almost exclusively at C3. Therefore, with ultrasound-assisted extraction from the brown alga Fucus
evanescens, a new regular 1 → 3;1 → 4-α-L-fucan was obtained. It is sulphated at C2 and acetylated at C3 of the fucose residue
and showed anticancer activity in vitro towards human colon carcinoma cells comparable to the total fraction F1.
To extract natural compounds of sea origin, including
sulphated fucose-containing polysaccharides—fucoidans—a
classical extraction method using solvents at different temper-
atures is most commonly applied (Ale and Meyer 2013). The
classical extraction method is a time-consuming process, dur-
ing which irreversible structure changes in native polysaccha-
rides can occur.
The application of non-standard extraction methods is a
well-known way to save time, as well as to intensify the extrac-
tion process (Chemat et al. 2012; Bucar et al. 2013). In partic-
ular, the application of ultrasound allows a speeding up of the
process and a more complete extraction of substances (Chemat
et al. 2012; Bucar et al. 2013). In a review by Ebringerová and
Hromádková (2010), examples of ultrasound being used to
extract phytogenous polysaccharides are considered.
There are few reports on the application of non-standard
extraction methods to isolate natural marine compounds
(Grosso et al. 2015). These methods are most commonly ap-
plied to produce natural marine compounds of low molecular
weight, particularly lipids, terpenoids, steroids and others
(Grosso et al. 2015).
New extraction methods with subsequent isolation of
individual compounds are even more rarely applied to pro-
duce polysaccharides from marine raw materials (Hahn
et al. 2012; Kadam et al. 2013; Esquivel-Hernández et al.
2017). There are isolated cases of ultrasound-assisted ex-
traction method being applied to brown algae to produce
laminaran from Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminaria
hyperborea (Kadam et al. 2015), fucoidan from Undaria
pinnatifida (Songa et al. 2015) and polysaccharides from a
green alga, Ulva intestinalis (Rahimietal.2016).
Obluchinskaya used ultrasound treatment to produce an
extract from a brown alga, Fucus vesiculosus
(Obluchinsksya et al. 2015). Microwave-assisted extrac-
tion has been applied to extract fucoidan from
A. nodosum (Yuan and Macquarrie 2015) and to produce
fucoidan from U. pinnatifida (Quitain et al. 2013). There
are reports of a pressurised liquid extraction method being
applied to isolate water-soluble polysaccharides from
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
(https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-017-1342-9) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
* Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva
G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern
Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Prospect 100-let
Vladivostoku, Vladivostok, Russia 690022
Journal of Applied Phycology (2018) 30:2039–2046