Caryota urens seeds are an agro-based material that can be used as an eco-friendly and low cost adsorbent for the removal of metal ions. In the present study, the biosorption of copper [Cu(II)] ions from aqueous solutions by using raw C. urens seeds (RCUS), sulphuric acid modified C. urens seeds (SMCUS), and ultrasonic-assisted C. urens seeds (UACUS) were investigated. The biosorbent materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the operating parameters such as initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose, time, temperature, and pH. The optimum conditions for the maximum removal (99.917 %) of Cu(II) ions for an initial Cu(II) ion concentration of 10 mg/L by the UACUS was measured as: pH of 5.0, adsorbent dose of 1 g/L, contact time of 30 min, and temperature of 30 °C. Adsorption mechanism, kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamic parameters were estimated. A Sips model is fit to explain the Cu(II) ion adsorption onto the RCUS, SMCUS, and UACUS. Pseudo-first-order kinetics agreed with the experimental data and fitted very well. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of the RCUS, SMCUS, and UACUS were found to be 5.056, 24.92, and 80.82 mg/g, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis was performed by evaluating the Gibbs free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°), and entropy (∆S°) of the process. The evaluation showed that the removal of Cu(II) ions onto the UACUS is exothermic and has an impulsive nature of adsorption. A single-stage batch adsorber design was designed using the Sips model to calculate the amount of adsorbent needed to treat the known volume of the contaminated water.
Research on Chemical Intermediates – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 9, 2015
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