The Goldenberg–Vaidman (GV) protocol for quantum key distribution uses orthogonal encoding states of a particle. Its security arises because operations accessible to Eve are insufficient to distinguish the two states encoding the secret bit. We propose a two-particle cryptographic protocol for quantum secure direct communication, wherein orthogonal states encode the secret, and security arises from restricting Eve from accessing any two-particle operations. However, there is a non-trivial difference between the two cases. While the encoding states are perfectly indistinguishable in GV, they are partially distinguishable in the bipartite case, leading to a qualitatively different kind of information-versus-disturbance trade-off and also options for Eve in the two cases.
Quantum Information Processing – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 13, 2014
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