Using genealogy analysis, we studied genetic diversity of 340 cultivars of spring bread wheat that were released on the territory of Russia in 1929–2003. Trends in the temporal change of genetic diversity were inferred from analysis of a set of n × m matrices, where n is the number of the released cultivars and m is the number of original ancestors. The pool of original ancestors of the spring bread wheat cultivars for the total period of study included 255 landraces, of which 88 were from the former USSR and modern Russia. The original ancestors showed great differences in their presence in the cultivar sets examined and, consequently, in their importance for the gene pool of Russian spring wheats. The distributions of contributions of dominant original ancestors to cultivar diversity were significantly different in different regions, indicating that the ancestors were specific for the cultivation conditions. During the last 75 years, the genetic diversity of the spring bread wheat cultivars has been increasing owing to the wide use of foreign material in Russian breeding programs. However, our analysis showed that about 60 landraces, including the Russian ones, were lost during the studied time period. The lost part makes up 35% of the gene pool of the Russian original ancestors. It is reasonable to assume that the lost landraces carried a gene complex f or adaptation to specific Russian environments. Specificity of the contributions of the original ancestors in the sets of cultivars produced in different breeding centers was established. A comparative analysis of genetic similarity of cultivars was carried out using coefficients of parentage. Significant differences in this parameter between breeding institutes and regions of cultivation were revealed.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 14, 2004
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