Colicin Ia is a bactericidal protein that forms voltage-dependent, ion-conducting channels, both in the inner membrane of target bacteria and in planar bilayer membranes. Its amino acid sequence is rich in charged residues, except for a hydrophobic segment of 40 residues near the carboxyl terminus. In the crystal structure of colicin Ia and related colicins, this segment forms an α-helical hairpin. The hydrophobic segment is thought to be involved in the initial association of the colicin with the membrane and in the formation of the channel, but various orientations of the hairpin with respect to the membrane have been proposed. To address this issue, we attached biotin to a residue at the tip of the hydrophobic hairpin, and then probed its location with the biotin-binding protein streptavidin, added to one side or the other of a planar bilayer. Streptavidin added to the same side as the colicin prevented channel opening. Prior addition of streptavidin to the opposite side protected channels from this effect, and also increased the rate of channel opening; it produced these effects even before the first opening of the channels. These results suggest a model of membrane association in which the colicin first binds with the hydrophobic hairpin parallel to the membrane; next the hairpin inserts in a transmembrane orientation; and finally the channel opens. We also used streptavidin binding to obtain a stable population of colicin molecules in the membrane, suitable for the quantitative study of voltage-dependent gating. The effective gating charge thus determined is pH-independent and relatively small, compared with previous results for wildtype colicin Ia.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 31, 2009
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera