Near-wall measurements are performed to study the effects of surface roughness and viscous shear stresses on the transitionally rough regime (5 < k + < 70) of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. The x-dependence is known from the eleven consecutive measurements in the streamwise direction, which allows for the computation of the streamwise gradients in the boundary layer equations. Thus, the skin friction is computed from the integrated boundary layer equation with errors of 3 and 5% for smooth and rough, respectively. It is found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the wall shear stress due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction as k + increases into the fully rough regime. Furthermore, the roughness at the wall reduces the high peak of the streamwise component of the Reynolds stress in the near-wall region. However, for the Reynolds wall-normal and shear stress components, its contribution is not significantly altered for sand grain roughness.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 2, 2007
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