Transgene silencing by the host genome defense: implications for the evolution of epigenetic control mechanisms in plants and vertebrates

Transgene silencing by the host genome defense: implications for the evolution of epigenetic... Increasing evidence supports the idea that various transgene silencing phenomena reflect the activity of diverse host defense responses that act ordinarily on natural foreign or parasitic sequences such as transposable elements, viroids, RNA and DNA viruses, and bacterial DNA. Transgenes or their transcripts can resemble these cellular invaders in a number of ways, thus making them targets of host protective reactions. At least two distinct host defense systems operate to silence transgenes. One acts at the genome level and is associated with de novo DNA methylation. A second line of defense operates post-transcriptionally and involves sequence-specific RNA degradation in the cytoplasm. Transgenes that are silenced as a consequence of the genome defense are revealing that de novo methylation can be cued by DNA-DNA or RNA-DNA interactions. These methylation signals can be interpreted in the context of transposable elements or their transcripts. During evolution, as transposable elements accumulated in plant and vertebrate genomes and as they invaded flanking regions of genes, the genome defense was possibly recruited to establish global epigenetic mechanisms to regulate gene expression. Transposons integrated into promoters of host genes could conceivably change expression patterns and attract methylation, thus imposing on endogenous genes the type of epigenetic regulation associated with the genome defense. This recruitment process might have been particularly effective in the polyploid genomes of plants and early vertebrates. Duplication of the entire genome in polyploids buffers against insertional mutagenesis by transposable elements and permits their infiltration into individual copies of duplicated genes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Molecular Biology Springer Journals

Transgene silencing by the host genome defense: implications for the evolution of epigenetic control mechanisms in plants and vertebrates

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/transgene-silencing-by-the-host-genome-defense-implications-for-the-BZFFF2cDk0
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2000 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Plant Sciences; Plant Pathology
ISSN
0167-4412
eISSN
1573-5028
D.O.I.
10.1023/A:1006484806925
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Increasing evidence supports the idea that various transgene silencing phenomena reflect the activity of diverse host defense responses that act ordinarily on natural foreign or parasitic sequences such as transposable elements, viroids, RNA and DNA viruses, and bacterial DNA. Transgenes or their transcripts can resemble these cellular invaders in a number of ways, thus making them targets of host protective reactions. At least two distinct host defense systems operate to silence transgenes. One acts at the genome level and is associated with de novo DNA methylation. A second line of defense operates post-transcriptionally and involves sequence-specific RNA degradation in the cytoplasm. Transgenes that are silenced as a consequence of the genome defense are revealing that de novo methylation can be cued by DNA-DNA or RNA-DNA interactions. These methylation signals can be interpreted in the context of transposable elements or their transcripts. During evolution, as transposable elements accumulated in plant and vertebrate genomes and as they invaded flanking regions of genes, the genome defense was possibly recruited to establish global epigenetic mechanisms to regulate gene expression. Transposons integrated into promoters of host genes could conceivably change expression patterns and attract methylation, thus imposing on endogenous genes the type of epigenetic regulation associated with the genome defense. This recruitment process might have been particularly effective in the polyploid genomes of plants and early vertebrates. Duplication of the entire genome in polyploids buffers against insertional mutagenesis by transposable elements and permits their infiltration into individual copies of duplicated genes.

Journal

Plant Molecular BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Oct 16, 2004

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off