Training letter and orthographic pattern recognition
in children with slow naming speed
Nicole J. Conrad Æ Betty Ann Levy
Published online: 25 September 2009
Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009
Abstract Although research has established that performance on a rapid auto-
matized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is
unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the
RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contribu-
tions to reading performance. We examined the beneﬁts of training orthographic
pattern recognition and speeded letter recognition for children in Grades 1 and 2
with slow naming speed. Children ﬁrst received training in either orthographic
pattern recognition or speeded letter recognition, and then switched to the other type
of training. Results indicated that speeded letter recognition can improve through
training, but only when preceded by training in orthographic pattern recognition.
Orthographic pattern recognition training improved the accuracy and speed of
reading training words, whether training occurred alone or following letter training.
Letter training prior to the orthographic training provided no additional beneﬁt.
Together, these results argue for the importance of orthographic training for chil-
dren with slow naming speed.
Keywords Rapid automatized naming Á Intervention Á Orthography Á
N. J. Conrad (&)
Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3,
B. A. Levy
McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
Read Writ (2011) 24:91–115