Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as model organisms to investigate the toxic effect and mechanism of four kinds of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids (ILs) on plant seedling taproots. After exposure to ILs, the growth of seedling taproots was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The toxicity of ILs on seedling taproots was [Bmim][BF4] > [Bmpy][BF4] > [Bmim][Br] > [Bmpy][Br]. The reduction of seedling root cell vitality, aggravation of seedling root cell death, and repression of gravitropic growth responses were observed. The amounts of H2O2 and ROS in seedlings were enhanced with increasing concentrations of ILs. Moreover, the expression levels of cdc2a and pcna1 genes were decreased after exposure to ILs. Our results suggest that ILs can induce the overproduction of ROS in A. thaliana seedling taproots and thus cause oxidative damage to seedling taproots. Meanwhile, ILs alter the expression patterns of two cell cycle-related genes and hence cause the seedling taproot growth inhibition. This work provides an integrated understanding of the toxic effect and mechanism of ILs on A. thaliana seedlings at the molecular and physiological level and also provides theoretical basis and reference for the environmental safety evaluation of ILs, prior to their widespread use and release.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 12, 2018
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