Toll-like receptor 4 mediates vascular remodeling in hyperhomocysteinemia

Toll-like receptor 4 mediates vascular remodeling in hyperhomocysteinemia Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to promote downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine elevation, the precise mechanism is still unknown. One of the possible receptors that could have significant attention in the field of hypertension is toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). TLR-4 is a cellular membrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types of the vasculature. Its mutation can attenuate the effects of HHcy-mediated vascular inflammation and mitochondria- dependent cell death that suppresses hypertension. In this review, we observed that HHcy induces vascular remodeling through immunological adaptation, promoting inflammatory cytokine up-regulation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death and chronic vascular inflammation. The literature suggests that HHcy promotes TLR-4-driven chronic vascular inflammation and mitochondria-mediated cell death inducing peripheral vascular remodeling. In the previous studies, we have characterized the role of TLR-4 mutation in attenuating vascular remodeling in hyperhomocysteinemia. This review includes, but is not limited to, the physiological synergistic aspects of the downstream elevation of cytokines found within the vascular inflammatory cascade. These events subsequently induce mitochondrial dysfunction defined by excessive mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial apoptosis contributing to vascular remodeling followed by hypertension. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Springer Journals

Toll-like receptor 4 mediates vascular remodeling in hyperhomocysteinemia

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-vascular-remodeling-in-y5vcDsbows
Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Medical Biochemistry; Oncology; Cardiology
ISSN
0300-8177
eISSN
1573-4919
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11010-017-3026-9
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to promote downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine elevation, the precise mechanism is still unknown. One of the possible receptors that could have significant attention in the field of hypertension is toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). TLR-4 is a cellular membrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types of the vasculature. Its mutation can attenuate the effects of HHcy-mediated vascular inflammation and mitochondria- dependent cell death that suppresses hypertension. In this review, we observed that HHcy induces vascular remodeling through immunological adaptation, promoting inflammatory cytokine up-regulation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death and chronic vascular inflammation. The literature suggests that HHcy promotes TLR-4-driven chronic vascular inflammation and mitochondria-mediated cell death inducing peripheral vascular remodeling. In the previous studies, we have characterized the role of TLR-4 mutation in attenuating vascular remodeling in hyperhomocysteinemia. This review includes, but is not limited to, the physiological synergistic aspects of the downstream elevation of cytokines found within the vascular inflammatory cascade. These events subsequently induce mitochondrial dysfunction defined by excessive mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial apoptosis contributing to vascular remodeling followed by hypertension.

Journal

Molecular and Cellular BiochemistrySpringer Journals

Published: Apr 6, 2017

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off