Toll-Like Receptor 4 Knockdown Attenuates Brain Damage and Neuroinflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Autophagy and Astrocyte Activation

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Knockdown Attenuates Brain Damage and Neuroinflammation After Traumatic... Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI. TBI model was induced using a controlled cortical impact in rats, and application of TLR4 shRNA silenced TLR4 expression in brain prior to TBI induction. Elevated TLR4 was specifically observed in the hippocampal astrocytes and neurons posttrauma. Interestingly, TLR4 shRNA decreased the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor-α; alleviated hippocampal neuronal damage; reduced brain edema formation; and improved neurological deficits after TBI. Meanwhile, to further explore underlying molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotective effects of TLR4 knockdown, our results showed that TLR4 knockdown significantly inhibited the upregulation of autophagy-associated proteins caused by TBI. More importantly, an autophagy inducer, rapamycin pretreated, could partially abolish neuroprotective effects of TLR4 knockdown on TBI rats. Furthermore, TLR4 silencing markedly suppressed GFAP upregulation and improved cell hypertrophy to attenuate TBI-induced astrocyte activation. Taken together, these findings suggested that TLR4 knockdown ameliorated neuroinflammatory response and brain injury after TBI through suppressing autophagy induction and astrocyte activation. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Springer Journals

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Knockdown Attenuates Brain Damage and Neuroinflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Autophagy and Astrocyte Activation

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Biomedicine; Neurosciences; Cell Biology; Neurobiology
ISSN
0272-4340
eISSN
1573-6830
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10571-017-0570-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI. TBI model was induced using a controlled cortical impact in rats, and application of TLR4 shRNA silenced TLR4 expression in brain prior to TBI induction. Elevated TLR4 was specifically observed in the hippocampal astrocytes and neurons posttrauma. Interestingly, TLR4 shRNA decreased the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor-α; alleviated hippocampal neuronal damage; reduced brain edema formation; and improved neurological deficits after TBI. Meanwhile, to further explore underlying molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotective effects of TLR4 knockdown, our results showed that TLR4 knockdown significantly inhibited the upregulation of autophagy-associated proteins caused by TBI. More importantly, an autophagy inducer, rapamycin pretreated, could partially abolish neuroprotective effects of TLR4 knockdown on TBI rats. Furthermore, TLR4 silencing markedly suppressed GFAP upregulation and improved cell hypertrophy to attenuate TBI-induced astrocyte activation. Taken together, these findings suggested that TLR4 knockdown ameliorated neuroinflammatory response and brain injury after TBI through suppressing autophagy induction and astrocyte activation.

Journal

Cellular and Molecular NeurobiologySpringer Journals

Published: Dec 8, 2017

References

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