Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI. TBI model was induced using a controlled cortical impact in rats, and application of TLR4 shRNA silenced TLR4 expression in brain prior to TBI induction. Elevated TLR4 was specifically observed in the hippocampal astrocytes and neurons posttrauma. Interestingly, TLR4 shRNA decreased the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor-α; alleviated hippocampal neuronal damage; reduced brain edema formation; and improved neurological deficits after TBI. Meanwhile, to further explore underlying molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotective effects of TLR4 knockdown, our results showed that TLR4 knockdown significantly inhibited the upregulation of autophagy-associated proteins caused by TBI. More importantly, an autophagy inducer, rapamycin pretreated, could partially abolish neuroprotective effects of TLR4 knockdown on TBI rats. Furthermore, TLR4 silencing markedly suppressed GFAP upregulation and improved cell hypertrophy to attenuate TBI-induced astrocyte activation. Taken together, these findings suggested that TLR4 knockdown ameliorated neuroinflammatory response and brain injury after TBI through suppressing autophagy induction and astrocyte activation.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 8, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera