Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus that can selectively replicate in and destroy human tumor cells. In this report, we demonstrate that NDV infection in HeLa cells leads to the activation of the pattern recognition Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Overexpression of TLR3 enhanced the activity of the IFN-β promoter and the transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-κB), thereby decreasing viral protein synthesis and the virus titer. In addition, the reduction of endogenous TLR3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased NDV replication. Similar anti-NDV effects were observed in DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells with the exogenous expression of chicken TLR3 (cTLR3). Immunofluorescence staining of HeLa cells indicated that the dsRNA generated during NDV replication colocalized with TLR3 in punctate subcellular structures. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that TLR3 actively participates in the recognition of the innate pro-inflammatory response after NDV infection and leads to the consequent antiviral cytokine/interferon secretion.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 1, 2014
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