ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2012, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 679–683. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © R.M. Bashirova, A.S. Grogoriadi, N.A. Kireeva, N.S. Borisova, Yu.S. Zimin, 2012, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2012, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 710–715.
Rapid elimination of soil pollution with oil and oil
products is a serious problem today. Entering into
medium pollutants contaminate soil and water by car
cinogens and mutagens inhibiting seed germination
and reducing soil fertility . The problem is compli
cated by the fact that oil is a multicomponent system,
in which each element can function either separately
or in combination with others.
There are many various methodologies of soil
remediation after its contamination with oil. However,
mechanical and physicochemical methods do not
guarantee a reduction in the concentration of residual
hydrocarbonates to a safe level. Biological methods of
remediation of contaminated systems are more effi
cient; their basics were elaborated by TimofeevRes
ovskii for biocenoses contaminated by radionuclides
. Under his guidance, experiments were performed
with more than 100 plant species and cultivars, which
radiosensitivity was compared and most efficient
phytomeliorants were selected.
It should be noted that the technology of soil phy
toremediation after its contamination with oil are
somewhat different from that used for soil cleaning
from radionuclides and heavy metals, which is based
on plant capacity to accumulate toxicants.
First, oil is a complex mixture of compounds that
can be degraded. On the other hand, oil is a product of
evolution and contains compounds inherent in plants
(isoprenoids, thiophenes, etc.) and manifesting not
only toxic but sometimes helpful, in particular growth
regulating and fungicidal, properties . In addition,
some cyclic oil components are similar to soil humic
and fulvic acids determining its fertility.
Second, the effects of oil products on soil and biota
are not limited by only direct toxic action. The effects
induced by modification of physicochemical condi
tions of plant habitat (aeration, soil moisture, or the
ratio of basic organic compounds) and microorgan
isms in the rhizosphere are more dangerous. The most
adverse oil action is associated with disturbances in the
soil aeration; as a result, the plant root system suffers
from the lack of oxygen.
Accordingly, when developing technology of phy
toremediation of soils contaminated with oil products,
the main attention should be paid to the selection of
plants capable in combination with symbiotic micro
organisms to transform toxic products into less mobile
and active forms, mainly due to stimulation of rhizo
degradation. The role of the plant is to increase the
efficiency of microorganisms functioning in the
rhizoplane and rhizosphere due to the emission of root
Plants used for soil cleaning from organic pollut
ants should meet the following requirements: (1) to be
capable of activation of pollutant destruction; (2) to
have a large aboveground mass and the root system tol
erant to hypoxia and anoxia ; (3) to be capable of
developing under the low redox potential; and (4) to
be tolerant to toxic action of sulfurorganic com
pounds characteristic of Urals crude oil (Russia).
Hydrogen sulfide, reducing soil redox potential
and the accumulation of toxic reduced nitrogen forms
, inhibits oxidoreductases of soil
and rhizosphere microorganisms and plant oxidative
metabolism . Hydrogen sulfide can have a direct
impact on the plant photosynthetic apparatus and root
system, as well as indirect effects through changes in
the activity of the rhizosphere microbiota. Exogenous
sulfur activates the synthesis of phytochelatins, cys
Tolerance of Garden Angelica to Soil Contamination
with Crude Oil
R. M. Bashirova, A. S. Grogoriadi, N. A. Kireeva, N. S. Borisova, and Yu. S. Zimin
Bashkir State University, ul. Zaki Validi 32, Ufa, 450075 Russia;
Received August 3, 2011
—Garden angelica (
L.) tolerance to the action of Urals crude oil was studied.
It was established that, at the oil dose up to 30 g/kg of soil, plant weight was increased and the photosynthetic
apparatus was activated. Garden angelica manifested tolerance to oil dose up to 60 g/kg. It is proposed to use
this plant for remediation of areas contaminated with oil products.
Keywords: Archangelica officinalis
, oil, phytoremediation, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, root system