Tolerance and immunity to pathogens in early life: insights from HBV infection

Tolerance and immunity to pathogens in early life: insights from HBV infection Immunity is not static but varies with age. The immune system of a newborn infant is not “defective” or “immature.” Rather, there are distinct features of innate and adaptive immunity from fetal life to adulthood, which may alter the susceptibility of newborn infants to infections compared to adults. Increased protection to certain infectious diseases during early life may benefit from a dampened immune response as a result of decreased immune pathology. This concept may offer an alternative interpretation of the different pathological manifestations clinically observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients during the natural history of infection. Herein, we review the immune pathological features of HBV infection from early life to adulthood and challenge the concept of a generic immune tolerant state in young people. We then discuss how the different clinical and virological manifestations during HBV infection may be related to the differential antiviral immunity and pro-inflammatory capacity generated at different ages. Lastly, we address the potential to consider earlier therapeutic intervention in HBV-infected young patients to achieve effective immune control leading to better outcomes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Seminars in Immunopathology Springer Journals

Tolerance and immunity to pathogens in early life: insights from HBV infection

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Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s)
Subject
Biomedicine; Immunology; Internal Medicine
ISSN
1863-2297
eISSN
1863-2300
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00281-017-0641-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Immunity is not static but varies with age. The immune system of a newborn infant is not “defective” or “immature.” Rather, there are distinct features of innate and adaptive immunity from fetal life to adulthood, which may alter the susceptibility of newborn infants to infections compared to adults. Increased protection to certain infectious diseases during early life may benefit from a dampened immune response as a result of decreased immune pathology. This concept may offer an alternative interpretation of the different pathological manifestations clinically observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients during the natural history of infection. Herein, we review the immune pathological features of HBV infection from early life to adulthood and challenge the concept of a generic immune tolerant state in young people. We then discuss how the different clinical and virological manifestations during HBV infection may be related to the differential antiviral immunity and pro-inflammatory capacity generated at different ages. Lastly, we address the potential to consider earlier therapeutic intervention in HBV-infected young patients to achieve effective immune control leading to better outcomes.

Journal

Seminars in ImmunopathologySpringer Journals

Published: Jul 6, 2017

References

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