This study examined the work experiences of men, a traditional workplace majority, as minority members of a female-dominated occupation. We used tokenism and social categorization theories to propose and test a set of hypotheses that link token status (a less than 15% minority) with male flight attendants' work attitudes through intervening psychological and job factors. Survey data from a sample of 236 male and female flight attendants supported a model in which a negative relationship between token status and the work attitudes of job satisfaction and organizational attachment was mediated by low self-esteem, increased role ambiguity, and poor job fit. The uncovering of these previously unmeasured intervening variables strengthens theoretical connections between demography and work outcomes and suggests leverage points for improving the work attitudes of individuals in the minority.
Sex Roles – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 3, 2004
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