TITANIUM CARBIDE SYNTHESIS IN THE PRESENCE OF IODINE
S. P. Bogdanov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 10, pp. 57 – 62, October 2015.
Original article submitted March 26, 2015.
Results are given for titanium carbide synthesis by reaction of titanium metal with carbon black, graphite, dia
mond, and butane in the presence of iodine vapor. It is shown that iodine significantly reduces carbide-form
ing reaction activation energy. It is established that TiC of stoichiometric composition may be prepared at
400°C. Titanium carbide powder with a block size from 19 to 30 nm is synthesized.
Keywords: titanium carbide, powder, iodine transport.
Titanium carbide is used extensively in ceramic and
cermet high-temperature materials. Being a promising mate-
rial for high-temperature electronics titanium carbide has
found application as conducting phase in cermet resistive
films for integrated circuits. Various requirements for proper-
ties from the direction of the user, and also the broad range of
TiC homogeneity and comparatively expensive raw material
has led to development of a considerable number of methods
for producing different materials made of titanium carbide
The main methods for preparing titanium carbide powder
may be separated into three groups:
– reduction of TiO
– synthesis from titanium metal powder,
– synthesis from titanium halogenides.
More than 80% of titanium carbide in industry is pre
pared from titanium dioxide. This is mainly connected with
the comparatively low cost and availability of TiO
tion of titanium carbide from titanium dioxide proceeds in
several stages TiO
® TiO ® Ti ® TiC.
The reaction commences in a vacuum at 800°C and proceeds
rapidly at 1200 – 1400°C. In order to prepare saleable prod
uct soaking is carried out at 1900°C for 0.5 h. However, pro
duction of TiC in a vacuum is a low productivity process.
In an argon atmosphere the degree of transformation of
titanium into carbide close to one is possible at 1900°C. The
temperature may be reduced for total oxygen removal, reduc-
ing the CO pressure formed in a reactor, for example in a
stream of inert gas .
In order to prepare TiC with highly bonded carbon con-
tent during TiO
carbidization it is recommended to use car-
bon black grade PM-15 and TG-10, which develop identical
activity in all stages of preparing TiC from TiO
. It is noted
that other carbon materials (carbon black grade PM-50 and
PM-100, acetylene, graphite) are only active in different
stages of the process, and the content of bonded carbon in
TiC in this case is lower . In spite of the high degree of
transformation of TiO
into TiC, the significant content of
bonded carbon and low content of free carbon, the TiC pow
der obtained contains 2 – 5% oxygen , which is a disad
vantage of the method.
Production of titanium carbide from a mixture of tita
nium metal powder with carbon black, depending on produc
tion conditions, may be accomplished by several methods:
direct synthesis without melting titanium, pseudomelting,
and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS).
Direct synthesis is normally carried out under laboratory
conditions with the aim of preparing titanium carbide with
prescribed bonded carbon content and minimum free carbon
and oxygen content. Carbonization, carried out in a vacuum
with a residual pressure of 10
Pa, and in order to ob
tain titanium carbide of stoichiometric composition, a charge
is necessary with a titanium content above the stoichiometric
ratio of Ti and C in titanium carbide in order to balance loss
as a result of evaporation. High-quality titanium carbide may
be prepared at 1600°C .
Pseudomelting of titanium carbide is obtained with reac
tion of melted titanium particles with carbon black. The pro
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 5, January, 2016
1083-4877/16/05605-0551 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGBOU VPO St Petersburg State Technological University
(Technical University), St. Petersburg, Russia.