The frequencies of autosomal trisomies in extraembryonic human tissues were estimated in the cases of different abnormalities of prenatal development, from the confined placental mosaicism (CPM) with either relatively normal embryogenesis or restricted intrauterine growth to spontaneous abortion. A tissue-specific compartmentalization was found to be characteristic of cell lines with trisomies for individual autosomes. Analysis of various phenotypical effects of chromosomal aberrations associated with mosaicism is necessarily required to understand the mechanisms and factors responsible for tissue chromosomal mosaicism. Based on analysis of the cell karyotype during prenatal diagnosing of chromosome aberrations in tissues of both extraembryonic and embryonic origin, in 1996, Wolstenholme proposed a model of CPM for individual chromosomes. According to the model, the distribution of cell lines with autosomal trisomies between extraembryonic tissues depends on the ratio between meiotic and mitotic mutations early in embryonic development. However, the model cannot be used to study tissue chromosomal mosaicism in spontaneous abortions, because little information is available on cell karyotype in embryonic tissues themselves after intrauterine fetal death. In this work, a model of tissue-specific chromosomal mosaicism was suggested based on the data on cell karyotype determined in extraembryonic tissues alone, which can be helpful in evaluating the contribution of tissue chromosomal differences into the etiology of early intrauterine death. Along with the experimental evidence, comparative analysis of the two models indicated that the meiotic chromosome nondisjunction plays the major role in trisomy formation and the resultant spontaneous arrest of embryonic development. Other factors responsible for tissue-specific distribution of chromosomal aberrations are also discussed. These are differences in cell proliferative activity, as well as changes in compartmentalization and migration of cells with abnormal karyotypes.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 16, 2004
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