This paper addresses the ability to reliably measure the fluctuating velocity field in variable-viscosity flows (herein, a propane–air mixture), using hot-wire anemometry. Because the latter is sensitive to both velocity and concentration fluctuations, the instantaneous concentration field also needs to be inferred experimentally. To overcome this difficulty, we show that the hot-wire response becomes insensitive to the concentration of the field, when a small amount of neon is added to the air. In this way, velocity measurements can be made independently of the concentration field. Although not necessary to velocity measurements, Rayleigh light-scattering technique is also used to infer the local (fluctuating) concentration, and, therefore, the viscosity of the fluid. Velocity and concentration measurements are performed in a turbulent propane jet discharging into an air–neon co-flow, for which the density and viscosity ratios are 1.52 and 1/5.5, respectively. The Reynolds number (based on injection diameter and velocity) is 15400. These measurements are first validated: the axial decay of the mean velocity and concentration, as well as the lateral mean and RMS profiles of velocity and concentration, is in full agreement with the existing literature. The variable-viscosity flow along the axis of the round jet is then characterized and compared with a turbulent air jet discharging into still air, for which the Reynolds number (based on injection diameter and velocity) is 5400. Both flows have the same initial jet momentum. As mixing with the viscous co-flow is enhanced with increasing downstream position, the viscosity of the fluid increases rapidly for the case of the propane jet. In comparison with the air jet, the propane jet exhibits: (1) a lower local Reynolds number based on the Taylor microscale (by a factor of four); (2) a reduced range of scales present in the flow; (3) the isotropic form of the mean energy dissipation rate is first more enhanced and then drastically diminishes and (4) a progressively increasing local Schmidt number (from 1.36 to 7.5) for increasing downstream positions. Therefore, the scalar spectra exhibit an increasingly prominent Batchelor regime with a ~ k −1 scaling law. The experimental technique developed herein provides a reliable method for the study of variable-viscosity flows.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 22, 2009
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