The turbulent pipe flow of a highly dilute aqueous cationic surfactant solution is investigated by means of a pulsed ultrasound Doppler method with special emphasis on the wall boundary layer. The velocity profiles are recorded for several Reynolds numbers at varying ages of the solution. The wall shear stress velocities u τ used for the normalization of the velocity profiles are determined by fitting the measured profiles to the universal linear velocity profile in the viscous sublayer. The theoretical pressure loss is then calculated from the numerical values of u τ and compared to the experimental values. Two different scaling methods are discussed for the velocity fluctuations concerning the correlation of the root-mean square values with the effect and the amount of drag reduction. It is shown that outer scaling with the mean velocity is appropriate for the detection of drag reduction in surfactant solutions, rather than inner scaling with the wall shear stress velocity, which is common practice in investigations of 'usual' turbulent flows.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 28, 2003
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