Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure the three-dimensional, time-averaged concentration distribution in a turbulent two-stream mixing layer. Test fluids and MRI scanning parameters were chosen to give good signal linearity, and a calibration/normalization procedure was developed to reduce the concentration measurement uncertainty. Plain deionized water mixing with a solution of 0.8% gadopentetate dimeglumine in deionized water were selected as test fluids. The concentration of the marked water was measured on an array of 220,000 0.69 mm3 voxels covering the entire flow apparatus. Planar laser-induced fluorescence experiments were performed on the flow centerplane to provide validation data. The uncertainty of a single voxel measurement was estimated to be less than 12% with the largest source of uncertainty being turbulent dephasing. Averaging two runs in which the marked water was switched between the two streams reduced the uncertainty to only 4%. The complete magnetic resonance concentration (MRC) procedure including the adjustment of scanning parameters, a background run, two reference/calibration runs, and multiple concentration measurement runs can be completed in 2–3 h. This work establishes MRC as a viable technique for studying the mixing in complex turbulent liquid flows.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 21, 2009
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